|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Perennial, sometimes from rhizomes
Stem generally bent at base or erect, generally tufted
Leaf: sheath appendaged, appendages sometimes small, fragile; ligule membranous, truncate to obtuse; blades flat, folded, or rolled
Inflorescence spike-like, open to dense; axis generally not breaking apart in fruit; spikelets ± 2-ranked or not, 14 per node, generally ascending
Spikelet: glumes lanceolate to awl-like, sometimes 0, awned from tip or not; florets 17; lemma generally > glumes, generally rounded, tip acute to awned, awn straight or curved outward; anthers 16 mm
Species in genus: 150 species: temp worldwide
Etymology: (Greek: ancient name for millet)
Reference: [Barkworth & Dewey 1985 Amer J Bot 72:767776; Wilson 1963 Brittonia 15:303323]
See Agropyron, Elytrigia, Leymus, Pseudoroegneria for species sometimes treated here. Some species hybridize; hybrids with Hordeum, Leymus, Pseudoroegneria also occur.
Stem 315 dm
Leaf: sheath glabrous to hairy, appendages < 1 mm; blade 28 mm wide, generally flat
Inflorescence 425 cm, not breaking apart with age; internodes 415 mm; spikelet 1 per node
Spikelet 1020 mm; glumes 612 mm, acute to short-awned; lemma 613 mm, glabrous to hairy, awn 130 mm; anthers 12.5 mm
Ecology: Dry to moist, open areas, forest, woodland
Elevation: < 3400 m.
Bioregional distribution: California (except Great Central Valley)
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, e US
Hybrids with Hordeum jubatum have been called E. macounii Vasey.
Spikelet: lemma awns 830 mm
Ecology: Habitat of sp.
Elevation: 10003400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: to Rocky Mtns
Synonyms: Agropyron s. (Link) Hitchc