|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Perennial, sometimes from rhizomes
Stem generally bent at base or erect, generally tufted
Leaf: sheath appendaged, appendages sometimes small, fragile; ligule membranous, truncate to obtuse; blades flat, folded, or rolled
Inflorescence spike-like, open to dense; axis generally not breaking apart in fruit; spikelets ± 2-ranked or not, 14 per node, generally ascending
Spikelet: glumes lanceolate to awl-like, sometimes 0, awned from tip or not; florets 17; lemma generally > glumes, generally rounded, tip acute to awned, awn straight or curved outward; anthers 16 mm
Species in genus: 150 species: temp worldwide
Etymology: (Greek: ancient name for millet)
Reference: [Barkworth & Dewey 1985 Amer J Bot 72:767776; Wilson 1963 Brittonia 15:303323]
See Agropyron, Elytrigia, Leymus, Pseudoroegneria for species sometimes treated here. Some species hybridize; hybrids with Hordeum, Leymus, Pseudoroegneria also occur.
Sometimes with short stolons
Stem 614 dm
Leaf: sheath glabrous or hairy, appendages ± 2 mm; blade 412 mm wide, generally flat
Inflorescence 616 cm (except awns), not breaking apart with age; internodes 48 mm; spikelets generally 2 per node
Spikelet 816 mm; glumes 6.519 mm, short-awned; lower florets concealed; lemma 8.514 mm, awn < 30 mm, generally straight; anthers 1.53 mm
Ecology: Open areas, chaparral, woodland, forest
Elevation: < 2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: California
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, Great Plains, n Mexico
Hybridizes with E. elymoides, E. stebbinsii, E. trachycaulus.
Horticultural information: DRN, SUN: 4, 5, 6, 15, 16, 17 &IRR: 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.
Leaf: sheath, blade ± glabrous or scabrous
Spikelet: lemma awns < 5 mm
Ecology: Coniferous forest, chaparral
Elevation: < 300 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Western California
Distribution outside California: to Alaska
Horticultural information: DRN: 4, 5, 6 &IRR, SHD: 7, 14, 15, 16, 17.