|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Perennial, sometimes from rhizomes
Stem generally bent at base or erect, generally tufted
Leaf: sheath appendaged, appendages sometimes small, fragile; ligule membranous, truncate to obtuse; blades flat, folded, or rolled
Inflorescence spike-like, open to dense; axis generally not breaking apart in fruit; spikelets ± 2-ranked or not, 14 per node, generally ascending
Spikelet: glumes lanceolate to awl-like, sometimes 0, awned from tip or not; florets 17; lemma generally > glumes, generally rounded, tip acute to awned, awn straight or curved outward; anthers 16 mm
Species in genus: 150 species: temp worldwide
Etymology: (Greek: ancient name for millet)
Reference: [Barkworth & Dewey 1985 Amer J Bot 72:767776; Wilson 1963 Brittonia 15:303323]
See Agropyron, Elytrigia, Leymus, Pseudoroegneria for species sometimes treated here. Some species hybridize; hybrids with Hordeum, Leymus, Pseudoroegneria also occur.
Stem 16.5 dm
Leaf: sheath glabrous to long-hairy, appendages < 1 mm; blade 16 mm wide, flat, folded, or rolled
Inflorescence 2.515 cm (except awns), breaking apart with age; internodes 310 mm; spikelets generally 2 per node
Spikelet 1220 mm; glumes 3585 mm, awn-like, base narrow, thick, generally spreading, sometimes with 12 short awns at base; lemma awn 3090 mm, spreading; anthers ± 2 mm
Ecology: Dry, open areas
Elevation: 6004200 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Great Plains, Texas, n Mexico
Synonyms: Sitanion hystrix (Nutt.) J.G. Sm
Hybrids with E. trachycaulus have been called E. macounii Vasey or (from c SNH, MP), E. saundersii Vasey [ Agropyron s. (Vasey) Hitchc.] Hybrids with E. glaucus have been called E. X hansenii Scribner [ Sitanion h.(Scribner) J.G. Sm.] Hybrids with Pseudoroegneria spicata have been called Agropyron saxicola (Scribner & J.G. Sm.) Piper. (see also E. multisetus ).
Inflorescence: spikelets generally 2 per node
Spikelet: glumes entire, awn 50110(125) mm; lowest floret fertile, not glume-like; fertile florets 1+; lemma awn 50105 mm
Ecology: Habitat of sp.
Elevation: 6003000 m.
Bioregional distribution: San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, Modoc Plateau, White and Inyo Mountains, Mojave Desert
Distribution outside California: to Oregon, Great Plains, n Mexico
Flowering time: JulAug
Synonyms: Sitanion longifolium J.G. Sm
Horticultural information: SUN, DRN: 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.