This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials).
[Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Perennial from scaly rhizomes, generally dioecious
Stems ascending to erect, stiff, glabrous, solid in X -section
Leaves 2-ranked; ligule membranous, fringed; blade flat or ± rolled, pointed, glabrous, generally deciduous at collar
Inflorescence panicle- or raceme-like; spikelets stalked
Spikelet unisexual; pistillate generally = staminate, compressed; glumes unequal, firm, awns 0, lower 3(5)-veined, upper 57(9)-veined; axis breaking above glumes and between florets; florets 320; lemma wide, 911-veined, awn 0; palea < or > lemma; keels minutely hairy
Species in genus: 36 species: Am, 1 sp. in Australia
Etymology: (Greek: 2-ranked, from leaf arrangement)
Reference: [Beetle 1943 Bull Torr Bot Club 70:638650]
Perennial; rhizomes stout, yellowish; stolons sometimes present
Stems erect, 15 dm,
Leaf: blade generally 210 cm, 14 mm wide, stiff
Inflorescence panicle-like, 28 cm, narrowly ± cylindric to elliptic in outline, ± dense
Spikelet 620(25) mm, straw-colored to purplish; glumes 1.54 mm; florets 515; lemmas 36 mm; palea ± = lemma, keel ciliate in pistillate florets
Ecology: Salt marshes, moist, alkaline areas
Elevation: < 1550 m.
Bioregional distribution: California
Distribution outside California: s Canada, US
Flowering time: AprJul
Synonyms: vars. divaricata Beetle, nana Beetle, stolonifera Beetle, stricta (Torr.) Beetle
Horticultural information: SUN: 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 22, 23, 24 &IRR: 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 18, 19, 20; GRCVR; INV; STBL; tolerates salt and alkali.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|