|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
previous taxon |
Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Leaves generally basal and cauline; sheaths < internodes; ligule short, densely ciliate; blades narrow, flat to folded
Inflorescence generally raceme-like (sometimes panicle-like or spikelet 1)
Spikelets ± laterally compressed; glumes ± equal, > florets, papery, 15-veined; florets 38, breaking above glumes and between florets; callus short-hairy; lemma rounded, 79-veined, tip 2-toothed, awned on back below teeth; awn generally bent, flat, coiled below bend, straight, ± cylindric above bend, palea = lemma
Species in genus: 20 species: warm temp, tropical, Am, Eur, s Africa
Etymology: (E. Danthoine, France, early 19th century)
Variation, especially in D. californica, D. unispicata , complex, needs critical study.
Stem 15 dm
Leaves generally basal, glabrous except near ligule; upper blades 510 cm, ± inrolled, ascending
Inflorescence 25 cm, narrow, compact; spikelets 410, stalk erect or appressed, glabrous
Spikelet: glumes 914 mm; florets 36; lemma 610 mm, margins, base hairy, teeth 12 mm, awn 59 mm
Ecology: Meadows, bogs, damp banks, moist forests
Elevation: 15003400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, e Canada, w US
Horticultural information: TRY.