|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Leaves generally basal and cauline; sheaths < internodes; ligule short, densely ciliate; blades narrow, flat to folded
Inflorescence generally raceme-like (sometimes panicle-like or spikelet 1)
Spikelets ± laterally compressed; glumes ± equal, > florets, papery, 15-veined; florets 38, breaking above glumes and between florets; callus short-hairy; lemma rounded, 79-veined, tip 2-toothed, awned on back below teeth; awn generally bent, flat, coiled below bend, straight, ± cylindric above bend, palea = lemma
Species in genus: 20 species: warm temp, tropical, Am, Eur, s Africa
Etymology: (E. Danthoine, France, early 19th century)
Variation, especially in D. californica, D. unispicata , complex, needs critical study.
Stem 110 dm
Leaves basal and cauline, glabrous to densely hairy; upper blades 825 cm, flat, spreading to reflexed
Inflorescence 26 cm, open
Spikelets 15; stalk generally spreading, puberulent; glumes 1023 mm; florets 38; lemma 815 mm, base, lower margin hairy, back ± glabrous; teeth 25 mm, awn 412 mm
Ecology: Generally moist, open sites, meadows, forests
Elevation: < 2200 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, San Bernardino Mountains, s Peninsular Ranges, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: w Canada, w US, S.America (Chile)
Upper leaves generally glabrous, hairy near ligule, not papillate
Spikelet: florets 48
Ecology: Habitat of sp.
Elevation: 1001900 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California
Distribution outside California: w Canada, w US
Horticultural information: DRN, SUN: 4, 5, 6, 15, 16, 17 &IRR: 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24; also STBL.