Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.



David M. Brandenburg

Stems erect
Leaves generally cauline; sheath glabrous; blade flat, margin scabrous
Inflorescence panicle-like; branches spreading to ascending
Spikelet ± sessile to stalked, breaking below glumes, falling as 1 unit; glumes ± equal or lower < upper, lower 1-veined, upper 1–3-veined; floret 1, slightly < or > glumes, bisexual; axis generally prolonged behind palea, short, bristle-like; lemma faintly 3–5-veined, short-awned just below acute tip, or awnless; palea ± < lemma; stamens 1–2
Species in genus: 4 species: temp North America., n South America, Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: a grass)
Reference: [Brandenburg et al. 1991 Sida 14:581–596]


C. bolanderi Scribn.


Stem 8.5–20 dm
Leaf: ligule 3.5–7 mm; blade < 40 cm, 2–19 mm wide
Inflorescence 7.5–43 cm, 3–18 cm wide, green to golden-green
Spikelet 4–5.5 mm; lower glume generally 3.5–5 mm, upper generally 4–5.5 mm; floret ± sessile; lemma 3–4.5 mm, faintly 5-veined, awn < 1.5 mm or 0; palea 3–3.5 mm; stamens 2, anthers 1–2.5 mm
Ecology: Streambanks, wet meadows, moist sites in coniferous forest
Elevation: 1850–2400 m.
Bioregional distribution: c&s High Sierra Nevada.
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
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