This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials).
[Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Annual, perennial herb, cespitose or from rhizomes
Stem decumbent to erect, 230 dm
Leaf: ligule membranous or hairy-tufted; blade generally 1040 cm, 0.51.5 cm wide, flat
Inflorescence generally umbel-like; branches 230, sometimes in distinct whorls, each raceme- or spike-like branch with 2 rows of overlapping spikelets on 1 side of axis
Spikelet: glumes unequal, < florets, 13-veined; axis breaking above glumes; lower 12 florets fertile, upper 13 sterile, < 1/2 lower floret length; fertile floret lemma ovate to lanceolate, back glabrous, midvein hairy, 3-veined, awn 1; palea < lemma, translucent, obscure
Fruit ± fusiform, 3-angled
Species in genus: ± 50 species: warm temp, tropical worldwide
Etymology: (Greek: mother of Nestor, goddess of flowers)
Stem generally 14 dm
Leaf: sheath glabrous; ligule hairy; blade < 15 cm, ± 0.3 cm wide
Inflorescence panicle-like; branches in 24 whorls, spreading, 515 cm
Spikelet 23.5 mm; lower glume 23 mm, ± 0.3 mm wide, lanceolate; upper glume 33.5 mm, 0.30.5 mm wide, lanceolate; fertile floret 1, 23.5 mm, 1.52 mm wide, lanceolate to elliptic, glabrous to hairy, awn 59 mm; sterile floret 1, 12.5 mm, 0.51 mm wide, awn 37 mm
Fruit ± 1.5 mm
Ecology: Uncommon. Disturbed areas
Elevation: < 300 m.
Bioregional distribution: San Francisco Bay Area, expected elsewhere
Distribution outside California: native to s Great Plains
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|