Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

link to manual TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993) previous taxon | next taxon
Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.



Robert Webster

Annual, perennial herb
Stems: internode solid to spongy inside
Leaves basal and cauline; sheath generally smooth; ligule short-hairy or membranous, ciliate; blade flat or folded
Inflorescence: main axis straight or wavy; spikelets in groups of 1(–8), generally enclosed by bur-like involucre, bracts bristle- or spine-like, fused; involucre and enclosed spikelets falling as 1 unit; spikelet sessile to ± embedded in short axis
Spikelet ± compressed; glumes strongly unequal, lower 1-veined, upper ± = florets; florets 2, lower floret sterile or staminate, lemma generally 5-veined, palea generally present, upper floret fertile, lemma thick, ± hard, palea ± = lemma
Species in genus: ± 20 species: warm temp Am, Africa, s Asia
Etymology: (Greek: ancient name)
Reference: [Delisle 1963 Iowa State Coll J Sci 37:259–351]


C. echinatus L.


Stem 1–5 dm
Leaf: sheath 3–7 cm; ligule ± 1–1.5 mm; blade 6–20 cm, 3.5–11 mm wide, upper surface glabrous or hairy
Inflorescence 3.5–8 cm; main axis wavy; involucre bracts 40–60, fused
Spikelet 5–6.5 mm, ± 1.5–2 mm wide, lanceolate to ovate, green; lower glume ± 1–3 mm, upper ± 4–6 mm; lower floret sterile, lemma acute
Chromosomes: 2n=68,70
Ecology: Disturbed places, fields
Elevation: < 150 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Sacramento Valley (Solano Co.), South Coast (San Diego), Sonoran Desert
Distribution outside California: native to s US, Mexico, C. and S.America
Flowering time: Oct

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bioregional map for CENCHRUS%20echinatus being generated
YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Cenchrus echinatus
Retrieve dichotomous key for Cenchrus
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
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