This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials).
[Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Annual, perennial herb
Stems: internode solid to spongy inside
Leaves basal and cauline; sheath generally smooth; ligule short-hairy or membranous, ciliate; blade flat or folded
Inflorescence: main axis straight or wavy; spikelets in groups of 1(8), generally enclosed by bur-like involucre, bracts bristle- or spine-like, fused; involucre and enclosed spikelets falling as 1 unit; spikelet sessile to ± embedded in short axis
Spikelet ± compressed; glumes strongly unequal, lower 1-veined, upper ± = florets; florets 2, lower floret sterile or staminate, lemma generally 5-veined, palea generally present, upper floret fertile, lemma thick, ± hard, palea ± = lemma
Species in genus: ± 20 species: warm temp Am, Africa, s Asia
Etymology: (Greek: ancient name)
Reference: [Delisle 1963 Iowa State Coll J Sci 37:259351]
Stem 15 dm
Leaf: sheath 37 cm; ligule ± 11.5 mm; blade 620 cm, 3.511 mm wide, upper surface glabrous or hairy
Inflorescence 3.58 cm; main axis wavy; involucre bracts 4060, fused
Spikelet 56.5 mm, ± 1.52 mm wide, lanceolate to ovate, green; lower glume ± 13 mm, upper ± 46 mm; lower floret sterile, lemma acute
Ecology: Disturbed places, fields
Elevation: < 150 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Sacramento Valley (Solano Co.), South Coast (San Diego), Sonoran Desert
Distribution outside California: native to s US, Mexico, C. and S.America
Flowering time: Oct
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|