Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
link to manual TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993) previous taxon | next taxon
Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

    THIS PAGE IS NO LONGER UPDATED
    AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.

CENCHRUS

SANDBUR

Robert Webster

Annual, perennial herb
Stems: internode solid to spongy inside
Leaves basal and cauline; sheath generally smooth; ligule short-hairy or membranous, ciliate; blade flat or folded
Inflorescence: main axis straight or wavy; spikelets in groups of 1(–8), generally enclosed by bur-like involucre, bracts bristle- or spine-like, fused; involucre and enclosed spikelets falling as 1 unit; spikelet sessile to ± embedded in short axis
Spikelet ± compressed; glumes strongly unequal, lower 1-veined, upper ± = florets; florets 2, lower floret sterile or staminate, lemma generally 5-veined, palea generally present, upper floret fertile, lemma thick, ± hard, palea ± = lemma
Species in genus: ± 20 species: warm temp Am, Africa, s Asia
Etymology: (Greek: ancient name)
Reference: [Delisle 1963 Iowa State Coll J Sci 37:259–351]

Introduced

C. echinatus L.

SOUTHERN SANDBUR

Annual
Stem 1–5 dm
Leaf: sheath 3–7 cm; ligule ± 1–1.5 mm; blade 6–20 cm, 3.5–11 mm wide, upper surface glabrous or hairy
Inflorescence 3.5–8 cm; main axis wavy; involucre bracts 40–60, fused
Spikelet 5–6.5 mm, ± 1.5–2 mm wide, lanceolate to ovate, green; lower glume ± 1–3 mm, upper ± 4–6 mm; lower floret sterile, lemma acute
Chromosomes: 2n=68,70
Ecology: Disturbed places, fields
Elevation: < 150 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Sacramento Valley (Solano Co.), South Coast (San Diego), Sonoran Desert
Distribution outside California: native to s US, Mexico, C. and S.America
Flowering time: Oct
Weedy.

previous taxon | next taxon
bioregional map for CENCHRUS%20echinatus being generated
 


Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Cenchrus echinatus
Retrieve dichotomous key for Cenchrus
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
Show other taxa with the same California distribution | Read about bioregions | Get lists of plants in a bioregion
Return to the Jepson Interchange main page
Return to treatment index page
Glossary


University & Jepson Herbaria Home Page |
General Information | University Herbarium | Jepson Herbarium |
Visiting the Herbaria | On-line Resources | Research |
Education | Related Sites
Copyright © by the Regents of the University of California