This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials).
[Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Perennial, generally from rhizomes
Stems 115 dm, generally not branched, ± smooth; nodes generally 24
Leaves generally basal and cauline; sheath smooth or scabrous; ligule membranous; blade flat to inrolled
Inflorescence panicle-like, open to dense; branches ± drooping to appressed; spikelets ascending to appressed
Spikelet: glumes subequal, generally lanceolate, acute to acuminate, lower generally 1-veined, upper 3-veined; floret 1, breaking above glumes; axis prolonged beyond floret, hairy; callus hairy; lemma < glumes, awned from below middle to near base, tip generally 4-toothed, veins 35, awn straight to twisted, bent; palea ± = lemma, thin
Species in genus: ± 100 species: cool temp (especially moist montane); some forage value
Etymology: (Greek: reed grass)
Reference: [Greene 1980 Ph.D. Thesis Harvard University]
Hybridization, polyploidy, and asexual seed set contribute to taxonomic difficulty.
Cespitose; rhizomes short
Stem 18 dm; nodes 23
Leaf: collar glabrous to short-hairy; ligule 26 mm; blade 25 mm wide, flat, lower surface smooth, upper generally soft-hairy
Inflorescence 415 cm, dense, narrow; branches < 3.5 cm
Spikelet: glumes 4.58 mm, scabrous; axis 12 mm, hairs 12 mm; callus hairs < 1/4 lemma length; lemma ± = glumes, awned near base; awn > lemma, exserted 24 mm beyond glume tips, twisted, bent
Ecology: Subalpine, alpine rocky slopes, sandy soils
Elevation: 13004000 m.
Bioregional distribution: High Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, n East of Sierra Nevada (Sweetwater Mtns), White and Inyo Mountains
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, Siberia, Greenland
Flowering time: JulSep
Some plants set seed asexually
Horticultural information: DRN, IRR: 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 &SUN: 4, 5, 6, 15, 16, 17.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|