|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Perennial, generally from rhizomes
Stems 115 dm, generally not branched, ± smooth; nodes generally 24
Leaves generally basal and cauline; sheath smooth or scabrous; ligule membranous; blade flat to inrolled
Inflorescence panicle-like, open to dense; branches ± drooping to appressed; spikelets ascending to appressed
Spikelet: glumes subequal, generally lanceolate, acute to acuminate, lower generally 1-veined, upper 3-veined; floret 1, breaking above glumes; axis prolonged beyond floret, hairy; callus hairy; lemma < glumes, awned from below middle to near base, tip generally 4-toothed, veins 35, awn straight to twisted, bent; palea ± = lemma, thin
Species in genus: ± 100 species: cool temp (especially moist montane); some forage value
Etymology: (Greek: reed grass)
Reference: [Greene 1980 Ph.D. Thesis Harvard University]
Hybridization, polyploidy, and asexual seed set contribute to taxonomic difficulty.
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Stems 36 dm, tufted; nodes 23
Leaves generally basal; ligule 56 mm; blade ± = stem, 12 mm wide, inrolled, upper surface scabrous
Inflorescence 512 cm, dense, narrow; lower branches < 3.5 cm, ascending to appressed
Spikelet: glumes 810 mm, scabrous; axis ± 4 mm, hairs < 3 mm; callus hairs 23 mm; lemma 57 mm, awned near base; awn exserted 5+ mm beyond glume tips, bent, twisted
Ecology: UNCOMMON. Bluffs, cliffs, coastal scrub, forest
Elevation: < 1200 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges
Horticultural information: DRN, IRR: 7, 14, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 &SUN: 4, 5, 15, 16, 17, 24.