|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Annual to perennial herb
Leaves basal and cauline; sheath closed, generally hairy; ligule generally < 5 mm, membranous, entire to fringed; blade flat to inrolled
Inflorescence generally panicle-like, open to dense; spikelet stalk generally stiff, rigid
Spikelet strongly compressed to cylindric; axis breaking above glumes and between florets; glumes unequal, generally < lower floret, lower generally 13-veined, upper 37-veined, back rounded to keeled, tip acute; lemmas faintly 59-veined, tip generally 2-toothed, short-pointed to straight-awned from between teeth; palea generally < lemma
Species in genus: ± 150 species: temp worldwide
Etymology: (Greek: ancient name)
Reference: [Stebbins 1947 Contr Gray Herb 165:4255; Wagnon 1952 Brittonia 7:415480]
Native species need careful study.
Perennial 45150 cm, sometimes flowering first yr
Leaf: sheath glabrous to soft-hairy; blade 312 mm wide, glabrous, scabrous, or soft-hairy
Inflorescence 520 cm, ± dense, generally becoming open in fruit; lowest branches generally spreading to ascending; upper branches ascending to erect
Spikelet strongly compressed; glumes keel-like, glabrous to short-soft-hairy, lower 6.512 mm, generally 3-veined, upper 915 mm, 57(9)-veined; florets 711; lemma body 1217 mm, 79-veined, keel-like, glabrous to densely short-hairy, awn 315 mm
Ecology: Open scrub, woodland, coniferous forest
Elevation: < 3500 m.
Bioregional distribution: California (except Great Central Valley, Sonoran Desert)
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, Texas, n Mexico
Plants generally self-pollinating, florets often cleistogamous; forms formerly recognized as species widespread, often occurring together.
Inflorescence: spikelets crowded, generally overlapping; branches and stalks generally < spikelets
Ecology: Dunes, meadows
Elevation: < 100 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, n South Coast, Channel Islands
Distribution outside California: Oregon
Synonyms: B. maritimus (Piper) Hitchc
Horticultural information: STBL.