Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.

BRACHYPODIUM

Dieter H. Wilken

Annual, perennial herb from rhizomes
Stems decumbent to erect; nodes often hairy
Leaves generally cauline; blade flat to inrolled, glabrous to short-hairy; ligule membranous
Inflorescence spike-like to raceme-like; spikelets generally 1 per node, subcylindric, ascending to appressed, sessile to short-stalked
Spikelet: glumes unequal, < lowest floret, 5–9-veined, acute to awned; florets 7–20+, bisexual; axis breaking above glumes and between florets; lemma backs rounded, 7–9-veined, acute to awned from tip; palea slightly < lemma, clearly ciliate or toothed
Species in genus: ± 15 species: temp, subtropical worldwide
Etymology: (Greek: short foot, from short, thick spikelet stalk in some species)

Introduced

B. pinnatum (L.) P. Beauv.

Perennial from rhizomes, generally > 50 cm
Stem generally erect
Leaf: blades (7)10–30 cm, 1.5–4 mm wide, ± inrolled when dry
Inflorescence 9–20 cm; spikelets 6–15(20) per stem
Spikelet: glumes 5–8 mm; florets 7–24; lemma 7–9 mm, acute to short-awned, awn < 3 mm; palea finely ciliate above middle
Ecology: Dunes, disturbed places
Elevation: < 30 m.
Bioregional distribution: s North Coast, expected elsewhere
Distribution outside California: native to Europe
Plants with leaf blades tightly inrolled, rhizomes many-branched, have been called B. phoenicoides (L.) Roem. & Schult.

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