Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.

BOTHRIOCHLOA

Kelly W. Allred

Perennial, cespitose
Stem generally erect; nodes generally short-hairy
Leaves basal and cauline; ligule membranous; blade flat or folded
Inflorescence panicle-like, branching 1–several X ; branches spike-like, long-soft-hairy; axes grooved, breaking apart with age
Spikelets paired; lower sessile, bisexual; upper stalked, staminate or sterile; pair with subtending axis segment falling as 1 unit
Sessile spikelet: glumes > florets, membranous; florets 2, lower vestigial, obscure, upper fertile; lemma translucent, tip awned
Fruit oblong to fusiform
Species in genus: ± 35 species: worldwide, warm temp, tropical
Etymology: (Greek: pit, from pitted glumes of some species)
Reference: [Allred & Gould 1983 Syst Bot 8:168–184]
Cult for forage, revegetation.

Introduced

B. laguroides (DC.) Herter subsp. torreyana (Steud.) Allred & Gould


Stems 4–13 dm, generally clumped
Leaves generally basal; blade 5–21 cm
Inflorescence 4–12 cm, branching 1–2 X , 1–3 cm
Spikelet: upper spikelet stalk 1–3 mm
Sessile spikelet > stalked spikelet, 3.5–4 mm, tan; lower glume pit 0; awn 1–2 cm
Ecology: Rocky slopes, disturbed areas
Elevation: ± 900 m.
Bioregional distribution: c Sierra Nevada Foothills (Mariposa Co.), San Francisco Bay Area (Alameda Co.), expected elsewhere
Distribution outside California: native to c&s US, n Mexico, S.America
Cult for forage.

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