Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.


Kelly W. Allred

Perennial, cespitose
Stem generally erect; nodes generally short-hairy
Leaves basal and cauline; ligule membranous; blade flat or folded
Inflorescence panicle-like, branching 1–several X ; branches spike-like, long-soft-hairy; axes grooved, breaking apart with age
Spikelets paired; lower sessile, bisexual; upper stalked, staminate or sterile; pair with subtending axis segment falling as 1 unit
Sessile spikelet: glumes > florets, membranous; florets 2, lower vestigial, obscure, upper fertile; lemma translucent, tip awned
Fruit oblong to fusiform
Species in genus: ± 35 species: worldwide, warm temp, tropical
Etymology: (Greek: pit, from pitted glumes of some species)
Reference: [Allred & Gould 1983 Syst Bot 8:168–184]
Cult for forage, revegetation.


B. ischaemum (L.) Keng var. songarica (Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Celarier & J.R. Harlan

Stem generally solitary, 4–10 dm
Leaves generally basal; blade 10–20 cm
Inflorescence 5–12 cm, branching 1 X ; branches 3–8, 4–8 cm
Spikelet: upper spikelet stalk 1–3 mm
Sessile spikelet ± = stalked spikelet, 3–4.5 mm, reddish to purplish; lower glume pit 0; awn 1–1.5 cm
Chromosomes: 2n=40,50,60
Ecology: Disturbed ground
Elevation: ± 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Cascade Range Foothills (Shasta Co.), expected more widely
Distribution outside California: native to c Europe, Asia

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bioregional map for BOTHRIOCHLOA%20ischaemum%20var.%20songarica being generated
YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica
Retrieve dichotomous key for Bothriochloa
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
Show other taxa with the same California distribution | Read about bioregions | Get lists of plants in a bioregion
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