Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.

AXONOPUS

Robert Webster

Annual, perennial herb
Stems generally erect; internode solid or spongy inside
Leaves generally basal; ligule short-hairy or membranous, ciliate; blade flat or folded
Inflorescence: branches ± spike-like, ascending to spreading; spikelets generally many, generally 1 per node, subsessile, on one side of axis
Spikelet compressed, falling as 1 unit; glume 1; florets 2, lower floret sterile or unisexual, lemma ± = glume, palea 0, upper floret fertile, lemma thick, ± rigid, back rounded, facing away from inflorescence axis, margin generally inrolled, tip generally obtuse, palea ± = lemma
Species in genus: ± 100 species: subtropical, tropical Am
Etymology: (Greek: axis foot, from spikelet at branch tip)
Reference: [Black 1963 Advancing Frontiers Plant Sci 5:1–186]

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