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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.



Kelly W. Allred

Annual, perennial herb, cespitose
Stem ascending to erect
Leaves basal and cauline; basal often tufted; ligule hairy; blades flat or inrolled
Inflorescence raceme-like or panicle-like; branches spike-like
Spikelet: glumes narrowly lanceolate, thin, 1-veined, awn generally 0; floret 1, breaking above glumes; lemma ± fusiform, hard when mature, 3-veined, tip beak-like or not, awned at tip, awns 3, equal or unequal; palea < lemma, enclosed by lemma, transparent
Fruit narrowly fusiform
Species in genus: ± 300 species: worldwide, arid warm temp. Some species noxious
Etymology: (Latin: awn)
Reference: [Allred 1992 Great Basin Nat 52:41–52]


A. ternipes Cav. var. hamulosa (Henrard) Trent


Perennial, sometimes bushy
Stems few, prostrate to erect, 25–80 cm
Leaf: blade 5–40 cm, flat to inrolled, base sparsely long-hairy
Inflorescence 15–40 cm, open; primary branches spreading
Spikelet: glumes ± equal, 9–15 mm; lemma 10–15 mm, generally straight at tip, awns equal to unequal, central awn 10–25 mm, lateral 6–23 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=44
Ecology: Dry hills and slopes
Elevation: 100–1350 m.
Bioregional distribution: Great Central Valley, South Coast, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Mojave Desert
Distribution outside California: to Texas, C.America
Flowering time: May–Nov
Synonyms: A. h. Henrard
Horticultural information: DRN, SUN: 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24; also STBL.

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