Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.

ANTHOXANTHUM

VERNAL GRASS

Dieter H. Wilken

Annual, perennial herb
Stems ascending to erect
Leaves ± basal, fragrant; appendages < 1 mm, rounded (sometimes obscure); ligule membranous; blade flat
Inflorescence generally panicle-like
Spikelets subsessile, laterally compressed; glumes > florets, lower glume 1/2 length upper, tip acute, lower 1-veined, upper 3-veined; florets 3, lower 2 sterile, on opposite sides of upper, fertile floret, lower and upper florets breaking above glumes, falling as 1 unit; lemma of lower florets > upper floret, awned at or below middle, tip 2-forked or lobed, hairy, 3-veined, lemma of upper floret awnless, tip rounded, ± glabrous, faintly 5–7-veined; palea 0 in lower florets, present and < lemma in fertile floret, 1-veined
Species in genus: 18–20 species: Eur, w Asia, montane n Africa
Etymology: (Greek: yellow flower)

Introduced

A. aristatum Boiss.


Stems 1–3 dm
Leaves: upper sheaths 1–6 cm; ligules < 2 mm; upper blades 1–3 cm, ciliate, soft-hairy
Inflorescence 0.8–3 cm, 3–9 mm wide
Spikelets 4–8 mm; lemma hairs ± stiff, hairs at lemma base brown
Chromosomes: 2n=10
Ecology: Disturbed sites
Elevation: < 200 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, North Coast Ranges, n Cascade Range Foothills, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, c&e US; native to Europe

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