Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.



M. J. Harvey

Annual or perennial herb, generally tufted, sometimes from rhizomes or stolons
Stems generally erect
Leaf: sheath generally smooth, glabrous; ligule membranous; blade flat to rolled
Inflorescence panicle-like, densely cylindric to openly ovate
Spikelet: glumes generally subequal, back generally glabrous, vein generally finely scabrous, 1-veined, generally acute; floret 1, < glumes, generally breaking above glumes; callus glabrous to densely hairy; lemma generally 5-veined, veins not converging, sometimes extended as short teeth, awned from back or not; palea 0 to ± = lemma, translucent; anthers generally 3
Species in genus: ± 200 species: especially temp Am, Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: pasture)
Reference: [Carlbom 1967 PhD OR State Univ]
Some cultivated in pastures, lawns.


A. scabra Willd.

Perennial 20–75 cm
Stems ascending to erect
Leaves mostly basal; ligule 2–5 mm; lower blades 4–14 cm, 1–3 mm wide, flat, finely scabrous
Inflorescence 8–25 cm, ovate in outline, open; 1° branches spreading below, ascending above, lower 4–11 cm, axes thread-like, branched 1–2 X above middle, often breaking at base in fruit
Spikelet: glumes 1.5–3 mm; callus hairs minute, sparse; lemma 1.5–2 mm, sometimes awned from below middle, awn < 2 mm, ± straight; palea 0 or minute, << lemma; anthers 0.4–0.7 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=42
Ecology: Open roadsides, meadows, coniferous forest
Elevation: 1000–3100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, ne US
Flowering time: Jul–Sep
Stunted alpine plants have been called var. geminata (Trin.) Swallen
Horticultural information: SUN: 4, 5, 6 &IRR: 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24; may be INV.

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