Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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Dieter H. Wilken and William F. Jennings

Perennial, terrestrial in CA, some nongreen, generally from rhizomes
Leaves linear to ± round or scale-like, generally sessile
Inflorescence: generally raceme or spike, bracted
Flower bisexual, bilateral, sometimes spurred; sepals generally 3, generally petal-like, generally free, uppermost generally erect; petals 3, lowest different ("lip"); stamen generally 1, fused with style and stigma into column, pollen generally sticky, generally removed as sessile anther sacs; ovary inferior, generally twisted 180° (so lip appears to be lowest perianth segment), 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal; stigmas 3, generally under column tip
Fruit: capsule
Seeds very many, minute
Genera in family: ± 800 genera, ± 18,000 species: especially tropical (worldwide except deserts). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattelya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedalum; Vanilla planifolia fruits used as source of food flavoring
Reference: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California, Cornell Univ.]
Nongreen plants derive nutrition through fungal intermediates.



Leaves basal and cauline, reduced upward, linear to oblong
Inflorescence: spike, generally dense, flowers in spiral ranks; bracts < to > flowers, gradually reduced upward
Flower: sepals and lateral petals narrowly lanceolate; upper sepal ± fused to lateral petals, together hood-like, enclosing column; lower sepals ± free, ± = lip, adherent to hood; lip deeply grooved below middle, concave above middle; column < lip, tip with anther on back
Fruit spreading to ascending
Species in genus: ± 40 species: especially Am, also Japan, Australia, New Zealand
Etymology: (Greek: coiled flowers)
Reference: [Sheviak 1990 Rhodora 92:213–231]


S. romanzoffiana Cham.

Plant 7–30 cm
Leaves: basal 3–13 cm; cauline 1.5–7 cm
Inflorescence 2–14 cm; bracts 6–14 mm
Flower: perianth 8–12 mm, generally white, sometimes cream; upper sepal and lateral petals fused ± > 1/2, fused portion ± inflated at base; lip ± violin-shaped, tip glabrous above; column 1.5–4 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=44
Ecology: Wet meadows, freshwater marshes, seeps
Elevation: < 3300 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, ne N.America, New Mexico
Horticultural information: very DFCLT.

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bioregional map for SPIRANTHES%20romanzoffiana being generated
YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Spiranthes romanzoffiana
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