This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Perennial, terrestrial in CA, some nongreen, generally from rhizomes
Leaves linear to ± round or scale-like, generally sessile
Inflorescence: generally raceme or spike, bracted
Flower bisexual, bilateral, sometimes spurred; sepals generally 3, generally petal-like, generally free, uppermost generally erect; petals 3, lowest different ("lip"); stamen generally 1, fused with style and stigma into column, pollen generally sticky, generally removed as sessile anther sacs; ovary inferior, generally twisted 180° (so lip appears to be lowest perianth segment), 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal; stigmas 3, generally under column tip
Seeds very many, minute
Genera in family: ± 800 genera, ± 18,000 species: especially tropical (worldwide except deserts). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattelya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedalum; Vanilla planifolia fruits used as source of food flavoring
Reference: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California, Cornell Univ.]
Nongreen plants derive nutrition through fungal intermediates.
Caudex tuber- or bulb-like, 14 cm, generally ovoid
Leaves: basal 25, linear to widely oblanceolate; cauline bract-like
Inflorescence: spike or raceme, generally cylindric; flower bract generally < flower
Flower: perianth white to green; sepals generally 25.5 mm, 12 mm wide, 1-veined, upper pointed forward to erect, lower free, spreading to reflexed; lateral petals ± = sepals, spreading to erect; lip pointed forward or down, spurred; column < lip
Fruit ascending to erect
Species in genus: ± 8 species: w North America
Etymology: (Charles V. Piper, Am botanist, 18671926)
Reference: [Morgan & Ackerman 1990 Lindleyana 5:205211]
Some species difficult to separate; green-flowered species doubtfully distinct from P. unalascensis.
Plant 1570 cmSee the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Leaves: basal 715 cm, 1530 mm wide
Inflorescence: 440 cm, ± open
Flower: perianth green; upper sepal erect to recurved, lower sepals reflexed; lateral petals ± linear, spreading or erect, ± recurved; lip 2.55 mm, narrowly lanceolate, pointed forward or down; spur 47 mm, curved, pointed down
Ecology: Uncommon. Generally dry sites, scrub, woodland
Elevation: < 2200 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: to Washington
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|