|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Perennial, terrestrial in CA, some nongreen, generally from rhizomes
Leaves linear to ± round or scale-like, generally sessile
Inflorescence: generally raceme or spike, bracted
Flower bisexual, bilateral, sometimes spurred; sepals generally 3, generally petal-like, generally free, uppermost generally erect; petals 3, lowest different ("lip"); stamen generally 1, fused with style and stigma into column, pollen generally sticky, generally removed as sessile anther sacs; ovary inferior, generally twisted 180° (so lip appears to be lowest perianth segment), 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal; stigmas 3, generally under column tip
Seeds very many, minute
Genera in family: ± 800 genera, ± 18,000 species: especially tropical (worldwide except deserts). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattelya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedalum; Vanilla planifolia fruits used as source of food flavoring
Reference: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California, Cornell Univ.]
Nongreen plants derive nutrition through fungal intermediates.
Caudex tuber- or bulb-like, 14 cm, generally ovoid
Leaves: basal 25, linear to widely oblanceolate; cauline bract-like
Inflorescence: spike or raceme, generally cylindric; flower bract generally < flower
Flower: perianth white to green; sepals generally 25.5 mm, 12 mm wide, 1-veined, upper pointed forward to erect, lower free, spreading to reflexed; lateral petals ± = sepals, spreading to erect; lip pointed forward or down, spurred; column < lip
Fruit ascending to erect
Species in genus: ± 8 species: w North America
Etymology: (Charles V. Piper, Am botanist, 18671926)
Reference: [Morgan & Ackerman 1990 Lindleyana 5:205211]
Some species difficult to separate; green-flowered species doubtfully distinct from P. unalascensis.
Plant 1570 cm
Leaves: basal 630 cm, 1075 mm wide
Inflorescence 340 cm, generally dense
Flower: sepals white, midvein dark green, upper ± erect; lateral petals spreading to erect, white to pale green, base or midvein green; lip 3.56.5 mm, ± lanceolate, ± curved downward, white to pale green; spur 614 mm, pointed down
Ecology: Generally dry, open sites, scrub, coniferous forest
Elevation: < 500 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, w Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Montana
Synonyms: Habenaria e. (Lindl.) Bol. including var. maritima (Greene) Ames
Horticultural information: SHD, DRN, IRR, acidic soil: 1, 4, 5, 6, 14, 15, 16, 17; very DFCLT.