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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Dieter H. Wilken and William F. Jennings

Perennial, terrestrial in CA, some nongreen, generally from rhizomes
Leaves linear to ± round or scale-like, generally sessile
Inflorescence: generally raceme or spike, bracted
Flower bisexual, bilateral, sometimes spurred; sepals generally 3, generally petal-like, generally free, uppermost generally erect; petals 3, lowest different ("lip"); stamen generally 1, fused with style and stigma into column, pollen generally sticky, generally removed as sessile anther sacs; ovary inferior, generally twisted 180° (so lip appears to be lowest perianth segment), 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal; stigmas 3, generally under column tip
Fruit: capsule
Seeds very many, minute
Genera in family: ± 800 genera, ± 18,000 species: especially tropical (worldwide except deserts). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattelya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedalum; Vanilla planifolia fruits used as source of food flavoring
Reference: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California, Cornell Univ.]
Nongreen plants derive nutrition through fungal intermediates.



Rhizomes slender
Leaves cauline, 2, ± opposite, generally ovate to ± round
Inflorescence: raceme, ± open; flower bract < flower
Flower: sepals ± equal, green to purplish, lower spreading; lateral petals ± like sepals, ascending to erect; lip generally > sepals and petals, spreading to descending, generally wedge-shaped, flat, tip entire to deeply lobed; column ± subcylindric, straight to curved, anther at tip
Fruit generally spreading
Species in genus: ± 25 species: temp and arctic North America, Eurasia
Etymology: (Martin Lister, English naturalist, 1638–1711)


L. convallarioides (Sw.) Nutt.


Plant 10–35 cm
Leaf: blade 2.5–7 cm, abruptly tapered to base
Inflorescence 3–4 cm
Flower: sepals 4–5.5 mm, ± lanceolate; lip 8–13 mm, ± oblanceolate, short-clawed at base, teeth 0, tip notched; column 2.5–3.5 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=36
Ecology: Moist, shady coniferous forest
Elevation: 1000–2900 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, e N.America, Arizona, Asia
Horticultural information: very DFCLT.

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