Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

ORCHIDACEAE

ORCHID FAMILY

Dieter H. Wilken and William F. Jennings

Perennial, terrestrial in CA, some nongreen, generally from rhizomes
Leaves linear to ± round or scale-like, generally sessile
Inflorescence: generally raceme or spike, bracted
Flower bisexual, bilateral, sometimes spurred; sepals generally 3, generally petal-like, generally free, uppermost generally erect; petals 3, lowest different ("lip"); stamen generally 1, fused with style and stigma into column, pollen generally sticky, generally removed as sessile anther sacs; ovary inferior, generally twisted 180° (so lip appears to be lowest perianth segment), 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal; stigmas 3, generally under column tip
Fruit: capsule
Seeds very many, minute
Genera in family: ± 800 genera, ± 18,000 species: especially tropical (worldwide except deserts). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattelya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedalum; Vanilla planifolia fruits used as source of food flavoring
Reference: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California, Cornell Univ.]
Nongreen plants derive nutrition through fungal intermediates.

GOODYERA

Rhizomes slender
Stem ± scapose
Leaves: basal in rosettes, blades tapered to base, white-veined to -mottled; cauline bract-like
Inflorescence: flowers ± 1-sided or in spiral ranks; flower bract ± = flower
Flower: sepals ± equal, ± enclosing column and lip, upper adherent to lateral petals, forming a hood, lower sepals spreading to reflexed; lateral petals fused; lip generally pouch-like below middle, deeply grooved to tip; column beaked
Fruit ascending to erect
Species in genus: ± 25 species: especially temp n hemisphere, also tropical
Etymology: (John Goodyer, English botanist, 1592–1664)
Reference: [Ackerman 1975 Madroño 23:191–198]

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