This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Perennial, terrestrial in CA, some nongreen, generally from rhizomes
Leaves linear to ± round or scale-like, generally sessile
Inflorescence: generally raceme or spike, bracted
Flower bisexual, bilateral, sometimes spurred; sepals generally 3, generally petal-like, generally free, uppermost generally erect; petals 3, lowest different ("lip"); stamen generally 1, fused with style and stigma into column, pollen generally sticky, generally removed as sessile anther sacs; ovary inferior, generally twisted 180° (so lip appears to be lowest perianth segment), 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal; stigmas 3, generally under column tip
Seeds very many, minute
Genera in family: ± 800 genera, ± 18,000 species: especially tropical (worldwide except deserts). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattelya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedalum; Vanilla planifolia fruits used as source of food flavoring
Reference: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California, Cornell Univ.]
Nongreen plants derive nutrition through fungal intermediates.
Leaves gradually reduced upward, lanceolate to widely ovate, often ± ribbed
Inflorescence ± 1-sided, open; flowers 4+; flower bract ± leaf-like
Flower: sepals ± alike, lanceolate to ovate, lower spreading to descending; lateral petals ascending or curved forward, shape and color ± like sepals; lip abruptly narrowed at ± middle, concave to pouch-like below middle, ± flat or grooved above middle; column curved over lip, convex above
Fruit spreading to pendent
Species in genus: ± 25 species: North America, Eurasia, n Africa
Etymology: (Greek: ancient name)
Plant 3070(100) cm
Leaves 515 cm, lanceolate to widely elliptic
Inflorescence: flower bract lanceolate to oblong
Flower: sepals 1220 mm, green, purple-veined; lateral petals 1315 mm; lip 1420 mm, lower half deeply concave, greenish to yellowish, veined red-purple, upper half grooved, yellow, reddish tinged or veined below; column 59 mm
Fruit 2028 mm
Ecology: Seeps, wet meadows, streambanks
Elevation: < 2600 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province (except Great Central Valley, s Channel Islands), East of Sierra Nevada, Desert
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, South Dakota, Texas, Mexico
Flowering time: MarOct
Horticultural information: IRR or WET, DRN: 4, 5, 6, 15, 16, 17, 24 &SHD: 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23; CVS.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|