This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Perennial, terrestrial in CA, some nongreen, generally from rhizomes
Leaves linear to ± round or scale-like, generally sessile
Inflorescence: generally raceme or spike, bracted
Flower bisexual, bilateral, sometimes spurred; sepals generally 3, generally petal-like, generally free, uppermost generally erect; petals 3, lowest different ("lip"); stamen generally 1, fused with style and stigma into column, pollen generally sticky, generally removed as sessile anther sacs; ovary inferior, generally twisted 180° (so lip appears to be lowest perianth segment), 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal; stigmas 3, generally under column tip
Seeds very many, minute
Genera in family: ± 800 genera, ± 18,000 species: especially tropical (worldwide except deserts). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattelya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedalum; Vanilla planifolia fruits used as source of food flavoring
Reference: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California, Cornell Univ.]
Nongreen plants derive nutrition through fungal intermediates.
Plants yellowish green to purplish; rhizome branches many, short, scaly, together coral-like
Stem ± scapose
Leaves bract-like, ± sheathing
Inflorescence: raceme; flower bract << flower, often scale-like
Flower: sepals ± alike, oblong to (ob)lanceolate, generally curved over column and lip, generally 3-veined, lower generally fused at base; lateral petals = or > lip, spreading or curved toward lip; lip simple to 3-lobed, spreading to reflexed, sometimes short-spurred; column generally convex above, concave below, curved over lip
Species in genus: ± 10 species: North America, C.Am
Etymology: (Greek: coral root)
Albino plants require careful comparison of sepals and lips for identification.
Plant 1755 cm
Stem red to yellow-brown
Flower: sepals 5.510 mm, lower spreading, generally colored like stems; lateral petals generally deep pink to red, sometimes dark-spotted; lip 57 mm, white, clearly red- to purple-spotted, base with 2 lateral lobes, tip finely crenate or toothed; spur < 2.5 mm; column 35 mm, yellowish, purple-spotted
Fruit 1520 mm
Ecology: Shaded coniferous forest, in decomposing leaf litter
Elevation: < 2800 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada (except Tehachapi Mountain Area), sw San Francisco Bay Area, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, White and Inyo Mountains
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, e US, New Mexico
Flowering time: JunAug
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|