Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

LILIACEAE

LILY FAMILY

Dale W. McNeal, except as specified

Perennial to trees, from membranous bulb, fibrous corm, scaly rhizome, or erect caudex
Stem generally underground
Leaves generally basal, often withering early, alternate, generally ± linear
Inflorescence various, generally bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial; perianth often showy, segments generally 6 in two petal-like whorls (outer sometimes sepal-like), free or fused at base; stamens 6 (or 3 + generally 3 ± petal-like staminodes), filaments sometimes attached to perianth or fused into a tube or crown; ovary superior or inferior, chambers 3, placentas generally axile, style generally 1, stigmas generally 3
Fruit: generally capsule, loculicidal or septicidal (berry or nut)
Genera in family: ± 300 genera, 4600 species: especially ± dry temp and subtropical; many cultivated for ornamental or food; some TOXIC. Here includes genera sometimes treated in Agavaceae, Amaryllidaceae, and other families.

ZIGADENUS

DEATH CAMAS

Perennial from bulb or rhizome
Stem ± scapose
Leaves many, ± basal (reduced upward), linear, generally folded, ± curved
Inflorescence: raceme or panicle
Flower bisexual, staminate, or sterile; perianth parts 6, petal-like, free or ± fused to ovary base, white to yellowish in CA, glands 1–2 near base; stamens 6, free to ± attached to perianth; ovary chambers 3, styles 3
Fruit: capsule, septicidal
Seeds many
Species in genus: ± 15 species: temp North America, Asia
Etymology: (Greek: yoke-gland, from gland shape of some)
All taxa should be considered highly TOXIC to livestock (generally unpalatable) and humans from alkaloids (especially in bulbs); caused serious illness to some members of Lewis & Clark Expedition.

Native

Z. micranthus Eastw.

Bulb 10–45 mm diam, spheric; outer coats dark brown to black
Stem 15–80 cm, glabrous to ± scabrous
Leaf 15–80 cm, 4–25 mm wide, scabrous-ciliate
Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, 5–40 cm, open; flowers bisexual; pedicels spreading, 15–40 mm, tips sometimes upturned in fruit
Flower 3–7 mm; perianth parts ovate to elliptic, obtuse, clawed, glands yellow, with thick teeth along veins; stamens ± = perianth; styles erect
Fruit 8–25 mm, cylindric
Chromosomes: n=11
Ecology: Dry slopes, flats, seeps
Elevation: < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges
Distribution outside California: Oregon

Native

var. micranthus

Bulb 10–25 mm thick; outer coat dark brown to black
Stem 15–50 cm, scabrous at least below
Leaf < stem, 4–10 mm wide
Inflorescence raceme-like (sometimes with basal branches); pedicels 15–40 mm, spreading, tips only slightly upturned in fruit
Flower 3–5 mm; perianth parts not cordate, glands with heavy, infolded ridge on lower edge
Ecology: Dry slopes, flats
Elevation: < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California
Distribution outside California: sw Oregon
Recent taxonomic note: Toxicoscordion micranthum (Eastw.) A. Heller
Horticultural information: SUN: 4, 5, 6, 17 &IRR: 7, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.

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