|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Perennial to trees, from membranous bulb, fibrous corm, scaly rhizome, or erect caudex
Stem generally underground
Leaves generally basal, often withering early, alternate, generally ± linear
Inflorescence various, generally bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial; perianth often showy, segments generally 6 in two petal-like whorls (outer sometimes sepal-like), free or fused at base; stamens 6 (or 3 + generally 3 ± petal-like staminodes), filaments sometimes attached to perianth or fused into a tube or crown; ovary superior or inferior, chambers 3, placentas generally axile, style generally 1, stigmas generally 3
Fruit: generally capsule, loculicidal or septicidal (berry or nut)
Genera in family: ± 300 genera, 4600 species: especially ± dry temp and subtropical; many cultivated for ornamental or food;
some TOXIC. Here includes genera sometimes treated in Agavaceae, Amaryllidaceae, and other families.
Perennial from bulb or rhizome
Stem ± scapose
Leaves many, ± basal (reduced upward), linear, generally folded, ± curved
Inflorescence: raceme or panicle
Flower bisexual, staminate, or sterile; perianth parts 6, petal-like, free or ± fused to ovary base, white to yellowish in CA, glands 12 near base; stamens 6, free to ± attached to perianth; ovary chambers 3, styles 3
Fruit: capsule, septicidal
Species in genus: ± 15 species: temp North America, Asia
Etymology: (Greek: yoke-gland, from gland shape of some)
All taxa should be considered highly TOXIC to livestock (generally unpalatable) and humans from alkaloids (especially in bulbs); caused serious illness to some members of Lewis & Clark Expedition.
Bulb 2035 mm diam, ± spheric; outer coats black
Stem 4090 cm, glabrous
Leaf 2050 cm, 830 mm wide, curved, scabrous-ciliate
Inflorescence: panicle or raceme, 540 cm, open; flowers bisexual; pedicels spreading to ascending, 1045 mm
Flower 815 mm; perianth parts widely ovate, obtuse, outer very short-clawed, inner with wide, 23 mm claw, glands greenish yellow with thick teeth along veins; stamens ± 1/2 perianth; styles erect to ± spreading
Fruit 1535 mm, cylindric
Ecology: Grassy or wooded slopes, outcrops
Elevation: < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Sacramento Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California
Distribution outside California: Oregon, n Baja California
Synonyms: vars. inezianus Jeps., minor (Hook.& Arn.) Jeps., and salsus Jeps
Recent taxonomic note: Toxicoscordion fremontii (Torr.) Rydb.
Horticultural information: DRN, SUN, mid summerDRY: 2, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.