|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Perennial to trees, from membranous bulb, fibrous corm, scaly rhizome, or erect caudex
Stem generally underground
Leaves generally basal, often withering early, alternate, generally ± linear
Inflorescence various, generally bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial; perianth often showy, segments generally 6 in two petal-like whorls (outer sometimes sepal-like), free or fused at base; stamens 6 (or 3 + generally 3 ± petal-like staminodes), filaments sometimes attached to perianth or fused into a tube or crown; ovary superior or inferior, chambers 3, placentas generally axile, style generally 1, stigmas generally 3
Fruit: generally capsule, loculicidal or septicidal (berry or nut)
Genera in family: ± 300 genera, 4600 species: especially ± dry temp and subtropical; many cultivated for ornamental or food;
some TOXIC. Here includes genera sometimes treated in Agavaceae, Amaryllidaceae, and other families.
Perennial from bulb or rhizome
Stem ± scapose
Leaves many, ± basal (reduced upward), linear, generally folded, ± curved
Inflorescence: raceme or panicle
Flower bisexual, staminate, or sterile; perianth parts 6, petal-like, free or ± fused to ovary base, white to yellowish in CA, glands 12 near base; stamens 6, free to ± attached to perianth; ovary chambers 3, styles 3
Fruit: capsule, septicidal
Species in genus: ± 15 species: temp North America, Asia
Etymology: (Greek: yoke-gland, from gland shape of some)
All taxa should be considered highly TOXIC to livestock (generally unpalatable) and humans from alkaloids (especially in bulbs); caused serious illness to some members of Lewis & Clark Expedition.
Bulb 1225 mm diam, widely ovate; outer coats ± brown
Stem 1570 cm, glabrous
Leaf 1040 cm, 410 mm wide, scabrous-ciliate
Inflorescence raceme-like (sometimes with basal branches), 525 cm; pedicels erect or ascending, generally 1020 mm
Flowers bisexual, 46 mm; perianth parts unequal, ± ovate, obtuse, outer 45.5 mm, generally subsessile, inner ± 4.56 mm, claw ± 1 mm, glands yellowish green; upper margin a heavy, irregular ridge; stamens = or > perianth; styles erect
Fruit 814 mm, cylindric
Ecology: Moist meadows to dry rocky hillsides
Elevation: < 2600 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Western Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, c US, Arizona, n Baja California
Flowering time: Mostly MayJul
Recent taxonomic note: Toxicoscordion venenosum (S. Watson) Rydb.
Horticultural information: SUN: 4, 5, 6 &IRR: 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.