|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Perennial to trees, from membranous bulb, fibrous corm, scaly rhizome, or erect caudex
Stem generally underground
Leaves generally basal, often withering early, alternate, generally ± linear
Inflorescence various, generally bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial; perianth often showy, segments generally 6 in two petal-like whorls (outer sometimes sepal-like), free or fused at base; stamens 6 (or 3 + generally 3 ± petal-like staminodes), filaments sometimes attached to perianth or fused into a tube or crown; ovary superior or inferior, chambers 3, placentas generally axile, style generally 1, stigmas generally 3
Fruit: generally capsule, loculicidal or septicidal (berry or nut)
Genera in family: ± 300 genera, 4600 species: especially ± dry temp and subtropical; many cultivated for ornamental or food;
some TOXIC. Here includes genera sometimes treated in Agavaceae, Amaryllidaceae, and other families.
Perennial, coarse, leafy; rhizome thick
Stem erect, 12 m, simple, hollow
Leaves many, alternate, lanceolate to widely ovate, generally acute, clasping, coarsely veined, reduced upward
Inflorescence: panicle; flowers many
Flower bisexual or staminate; perianth parts 6, petal-like, free, widely spreading, white or greenish to red-brown, nectary glands 12 near base; stamens 6, attached to perianth; ovary slightly inferior, chambers 3, styles 3, short, stigmas long
Fruit: capsule, septicidal
Species in genus: ± 25 species: n temp
Etymology: (Latin: dark roots)
Alkaloids used medicinally and TOXIC to both livestock and humans.
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Leaves elliptic; lower 1023 cm, hairy below and on sheaths
Inflorescence erect, generally 2050 cm, grayish woolly; branches ascending; pedicels 615 mm
Flower 69 mm; perianth parts widely ovate, white to yellowish, hairy, outer irregularly ciliate, inner ± fringed, glands 2, elliptic, greenish; stamens ± = perianth; ovary woolly
Fruit 23 cm, oblong-ovoid, ± woolly
Seed 1015 mm, widely winged
Ecology: Openings in thickets and mixed-evergreen forest on red clay
Elevation: > 900 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges
Distribution outside California: to Washington