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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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Dale W. McNeal, except as specified

Perennial to trees, from membranous bulb, fibrous corm, scaly rhizome, or erect caudex
Stem generally underground
Leaves generally basal, often withering early, alternate, generally ± linear
Inflorescence various, generally bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial; perianth often showy, segments generally 6 in two petal-like whorls (outer sometimes sepal-like), free or fused at base; stamens 6 (or 3 + generally 3 ± petal-like staminodes), filaments sometimes attached to perianth or fused into a tube or crown; ovary superior or inferior, chambers 3, placentas generally axile, style generally 1, stigmas generally 3
Fruit: generally capsule, loculicidal or septicidal (berry or nut)
Genera in family: ± 300 genera, 4600 species: especially ± dry temp and subtropical; many cultivated for ornamental or food; some TOXIC. Here includes genera sometimes treated in Agavaceae, Amaryllidaceae, and other families.



Mark W. Skinner

Perennial from bulb-like, scaly rhizomes (called bulbs), generally not clonal, ± glabrous
Stem erect
Leaves ± whorled (often some scattered), sessile, generally ± elliptic; veins generally 3; stipule 0
Inflorescence: flowers axillary, 1–40+; bracts generally 2 per flower
Flower generally radial, generally bell- or trumpet-shaped; perianth segments 6 in 2 petal-like whorls, outer generally ± clawed, generally red-purple-spotted on inner base; stamens 6, anthers attached near middle (measures are after dehiscence); style 1, stigma 3-lobed
Fruit: capsule, erect, generally ± smooth, loculicidal
Seeds many, flat, in 6 stacks
Species in genus: ± 90 species: n temp, tropical mtns of e Asia
Etymology: (Greek: lily)
Reference: [Skinner 1988 PhD Harvard Univ]
Variable; hybridization common. Many species declining from habitat destruction and collecting; few thrive in gardens. Generally flowers May to Aug.


L. columbianum Leichtlin


Plant < 2.5 m, glaucous or not; bulb erect to ascending, oblique or ± ovoid, longest scales 3–7 cm, (0)2–3(4–5)-segmented
Leaves in 2–9 whorls, generally ascending, 1.5–16 cm, generally ± obovate; margin generally wavy
Inflorescence: flowers 1–18, pendent to nodding
Flower widely bell-shaped, not fragrant; perianth segments 3–7 cm, 50% strongly recurved, orange (often reddish outside); stamens > perianth, filaments spreading, anthers 6–13 mm, ± yellow, pollen orange or yellow; pistil 2.4–4 cm
Fruit 2–6 cm, 1–2 cm diam
Chromosomes: 2n=24
Ecology: Dry scrub, coastal prairie, gaps and roadsides in conifer forest, especially along coast
Elevation: < 1300 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Idaho
May intergrade with L. kelloggii near OR border. Hybridizes with L. pardalinum subspp. vollmeri & wigginsii , often with L. occidentale in OR
Horticultural information: SHD, DRN, DRY Jul to Oct: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19; may be DFCLT.

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