|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Perennial to trees, from membranous bulb, fibrous corm, scaly rhizome, or erect caudex
Stem generally underground
Leaves generally basal, often withering early, alternate, generally ± linear
Inflorescence various, generally bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial; perianth often showy, segments generally 6 in two petal-like whorls (outer sometimes sepal-like), free or fused at base; stamens 6 (or 3 + generally 3 ± petal-like staminodes), filaments sometimes attached to perianth or fused into a tube or crown; ovary superior or inferior, chambers 3, placentas generally axile, style generally 1, stigmas generally 3
Fruit: generally capsule, loculicidal or septicidal (berry or nut)
Genera in family: ± 300 genera, 4600 species: especially ± dry temp and subtropical; many cultivated for ornamental or food;
some TOXIC. Here includes genera sometimes treated in Agavaceae, Amaryllidaceae, and other families.
Perennial; bulb with 1several large fleshy scales, 0many small scales
Stem erect, simple (0 in non-flower plants)
Leaves alternate (or whorled below), sessile, linear to ± ovate (1 "bulb-leaf" in non-flower plants)
Inflorescence: raceme; bracts leaf-like
Flower generally nodding, bell- or cup-shaped; perianth segments 6, of 2 similar whorls; nectaries 6, on perianth parts; stamens 6, included, inserted at perianth base, anthers attached ± near middle; ovary ± sessile, style 1, entire or 3-branched
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal, thin walled, ± rounded, 6-angled, or winged, chambers 3
Seeds many, 2 rows per chamber, flat, brownish
Species in genus: ± 100 species: n temp
Etymology: (Latin: dicebox, from fruit shape)
Reference: [Turrill & Sealy 1980 Hooker's Icones Plantarum 34:1275]
Bulbs of some eaten by Indians of North America
Horticultural information: DRN: for pots or rock gardens; DRY when dormant. Most are very DFCLT.
Bulb; large scales 25; small scales 220
Stem 112 dm
Leaves in 14 whorls of 28 below, alternate above, 416 cm, linear-lanceolate to ovate
Flower nodding; perianth parts 14 cm, oblong to ovate, brownish purple mottled yellow to pale yellowish green mottled purple; nectary 1/22/3 perianth length, lanceolate, yellow with purple dots; style divided 1/2
Fruit widely winged
Ecology: Common. Oak or pine scrub, grasslands
Elevation: < 1800 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Idaho
Synonyms: F. lanceolata Pursh (illegitimate name); F. phaeanthera Purdy
Highly variable; needs further study; hybridizes with F. recurva.
Bulb with 60100+ small scales
Flower: perianth parts scarcely mottled
Ecology: Very uncommon. Coastal grassland
Elevation: < 100 m.
Bioregional distribution: n Central Coast (w Marin Co.).