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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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JUNCACEAE

RUSH FAMILY

Janice Coffey Swab

Annual, perennial herb, generally from rhizomes
Stem round or flat
Leaves generally mostly basal; sheath margins fused, or overlapping and generally with 2 ear-like extensions at blade junction; blade round, flat, or vestigial, glabrous or margin hairy
Inflorescence: head-like clusters or single flowers, variously arranged; bracts subtending inflorescence 2, generally leaf-like; bracts subtending inflorescence branches 1–2, reduced; bractlets subtending flowers generally 1–2, generally translucent
Flower generally bisexual, radial; sepals and petals similar, persistent, green to brown or purplish black; stamens generally 3 or 6, anthers linear, persistent; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 1 or 3, placentas 1 and basal or 3 and axile or parietal, stigmas generally > style
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal
Seeds 3–many, often with white appendages on 1 or both ends
Genera in family: 9 genera, 325 species: temp, arctic, tropical mtns. Fls late spring to early fall.

JUNCUS

RUSH

Annual, perennial herb; rhizome (if any) generally with scale-like leaves
Stem generally cylindric or flat
Leaf: blade well developed and cylindric or flat, or reduced to small point; crosswalls often present (pull fresh blade apart lengthwise to see or slide leaf between fingers to feel); appendages often present at blade-sheath junction
Inflorescence generally terminal (appearing lateral when pushed aside by lowest inflorescence bract); bractlets 0–2
Flowers: stamens generally 3 or 6 (2 in some very small annual taxa); pistil 1, ovary chambers 1 or 3, placentas axile or parietal, stigmas generally 3(2)
Seeds many
Species in genus: 225 species: worldwide, especially n hemisphere
Etymology: (Latin: to join or bind, from use of stems)
Reference: [Ertter 1986 Mem NY Bot Gard 39:1–90]

Native

J. effusus L.

Perennial, cespitose, 60–130 cm; rhizome stout, branched
Stem 1–3.5 mm wide at base
Leaves basal; sheaths 5–15 cm; blades 0
Inflorescence appearing lateral, open; lowest bract cylindric, resembling stem, >> inflorescence; flowers generally many, single; bractlets 2 per flower
Flower: perianth segments 1.8–4.2 mm, ± equal, generally ascending, very pale to dark; stamens 3, filaments > anthers
Fruit ± = perianth, obovoid, ± truncate
Seed 0.5 mm; appendage 1, minute
Chromosomes: 2n=40
Ecology: Wet places
Elevation: < 2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: California (except Sonoran Desert)
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, e US, Mexico, Eurasia

Native

var. pacificus Fernald & Wiegand


Leaf: sheath uniformly dark, edges overlapping at top
Flower: perianth 2.5–4.2 mm, firm when fresh, rigid when dry, green to pale brown
Ecology: Many moist habitats
Elevation: < 2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: California (except Sonoran Desert)
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia
Flowering time: Jun–Aug
A large, s CA variant with dark leaf sheaths may warrant status as var
Horticultural information: IRR or WET: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.

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bioregional map for JUNCUS%20effusus%20var.%20pacificus being generated
 
N.B. The distribution depicted here differs from that given in The Jepson Manual (1993)
YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Juncus effusus var. pacificus
Retrieve dichotomous key for Juncus
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
Show other taxa with the same California distribution | Read about bioregions | Get lists of plants in a bioregion
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