This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual or perennial herb, often rhizomed, often of wet open places, generally monoecious; roots fibrous, hairy
Stem generally 3-sided
Leaves often 3-ranked; sheath generally closed; ligule generally 0; blade (0) various, parallel-veined
Inflorescence: spikelets variously clustered; flowers generally sessile in axil of flower bract
Flower small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or bristle-like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4-chambered; ovary superior, 1-chambered, 1-ovuled, style 23-branched
Fruit: achene, generally 3-sided
Genera in family: ± 110 genera, 3600 species: worldwide, especially temp
Reference: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361445]
Difficult: taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence and fruit.
Annual or perennial herb, rhizomed or not; roots fibrous
Stem generally erect, 3-angled or cylindric, solid
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, 3-ranked; sheaths closed; ligule 0 or present; blades linear, sometimes vestigial and scale-like
Inflorescence panicle- or head-like; bracts 1several, leaf- or ± stem-like; spikelets 1many, generally many-flowered; flower bracts spiraled, generally ovate, scale-like
Flower bisexual; perianth bristles generally < and hidden by flower bracts, generally ± straight, generally slender, generally stiff, generally persistent on fruit, generally finely spined or fringed, sometimes 0 or vestigial; stamens generally 3; style 1, ribbon- or thread-like, stigmas 23, generally exserted
Fruit: achene, generally obovoid, lenticular or ± 23-angled, generally beaked, not tubercled
Species in genus: ± 200 species: generally wet sites, worldwide. Some species mistaken for Eleocharis
Recent taxonomic note: *CA plants treated as Amphiscirpus, Bolboschoenus, Isolepis, Schoenoplectus, Trichophorum [Browning et al. 1995 Brittonia 47:433445; Smith 1995 Novon 5:97102]
Perennial < 50 cm; rhizome long with 12 cm wide tubers
Stems erect, generally densely clumped, ± 1.53 mm wide, sharply 3-angled
Leaves ± cauline; sheath top opposite blade V-shaped, veinless; upper blades >> sheaths, generally 25 mm wide when dry, midrib and margin finely scabrous
Inflorescence panicle- or head-like; spikelets ± 350, 1025(40) mm, 45 mm wide, generally many in clusters at branch tips; 23 bracts >> inflorescence, leaf-like, generally < 3 mm wide when dry; flower bract ± 5 mm, not strongly appressed, sparsely scabrous, ± colorless to orange-brown, tip notch ± 0.5 mm, awn ± 11.5 mm, irregularly bent
Flower: perianth bristles generally 6, < 1/2 to = fruit, generally deciduous; stigmas 3
Fruit 23 mm, weakly 23-angled, smooth, brown; sides convex; tip truncate, beak 0.10.2 mm
Ecology: Ditches, marshes, rice-fields
Elevation: < 150 m.
Bioregional distribution: Great Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area
Distribution outside California: to Oregon, e N.America; native to Europe
Synonyms: S. maritimus var. t. (Desf.) Roem. & Schult
Cult for waterfowl food
Recent taxonomic note: *Misapplied to Bolboschoenus glaucus (Lam.) S.G. Sm.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|