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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Raymond Cranfill, except as specified

Annual or perennial herb, often rhizomed, often of wet open places, generally monoecious; roots fibrous, hairy
Stem generally 3-sided
Leaves often 3-ranked; sheath generally closed; ligule generally 0; blade (0) various, parallel-veined
Inflorescence: spikelets variously clustered; flowers generally sessile in axil of flower bract
Flower small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or bristle-like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4-chambered; ovary superior, 1-chambered, 1-ovuled, style 2–3-branched
Fruit: achene, generally 3-sided
Genera in family: ± 110 genera, 3600 species: worldwide, especially temp
Reference: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361–445]
Difficult: taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence and fruit.

SCIRPUS

S. Galen Smith, A.E. Schuyler, and William J. Crins

Annual or perennial herb, rhizomed or not; roots fibrous
Stem generally erect, 3-angled or cylindric, solid
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, 3-ranked; sheaths closed; ligule 0 or present; blades linear, sometimes vestigial and scale-like
Inflorescence panicle- or head-like; bracts 1–several, leaf- or ± stem-like; spikelets 1–many, generally many-flowered; flower bracts spiraled, generally ovate, scale-like
Flower bisexual; perianth bristles generally < and hidden by flower bracts, generally ± straight, generally slender, generally stiff, generally persistent on fruit, generally finely spined or fringed, sometimes 0 or vestigial; stamens generally 3; style 1, ribbon- or thread-like, stigmas 2–3, generally exserted
Fruit: achene, generally obovoid, lenticular or ± 2–3-angled, generally beaked, not tubercled
Species in genus: ± 200 species: generally wet sites, worldwide. Some species mistaken for Eleocharis
Recent taxonomic note: *CA plants treated as Amphiscirpus, Bolboschoenus, Isolepis, Schoenoplectus, Trichophorum [Browning et al. 1995 Brittonia 47:433–445; Smith 1995 Novon 5:97–102]

Native

S. pumilus Vahl

DWARF BULRUSH

Perennial 3–17 cm; rhizome long,
Stems erect, tufted, generally < 1.5 mm wide, subcylindric, ± grooved
Leaves ± basal; sheaths short, not prominent; blades >> sheaths, ± flat, thick, glabrous
Inflorescence: spikelet 1, 3–5 mm, 1–3 mm wide, 3–6-flowered; bract 1, 1.5–3 mm, erect, stiff, ± stem-like, tip abruptly pointed; flower bract 2–3 mm, glabrous, orange-brown, midrib thick, margin translucent, tip rounded to abruptly pointed
Flower: perianth bristles 0; stigmas 3
Fruit ± 1.5–2 mm, compressed, 2–3-angled, smooth
Ecology: Wet sites, limestone soils
Elevation: 3100–3250 m.
Bioregional distribution: c High Sierra Nevada (Convict Creek, Mono Co.)
Distribution outside California: to Canada, Colorado, Eurasia
Synonyms: S. rollandii Fernald, Rolland's bulrush, misapplied
Recent taxonomic note: *Trichophorum pumilum (Vahl) Schinz & Thell.
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
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