Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Raymond Cranfill, except as specified

Annual or perennial herb, often rhizomed, often of wet open places, generally monoecious; roots fibrous, hairy
Stem generally 3-sided
Leaves often 3-ranked; sheath generally closed; ligule generally 0; blade (0) various, parallel-veined
Inflorescence: spikelets variously clustered; flowers generally sessile in axil of flower bract
Flower small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or bristle-like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4-chambered; ovary superior, 1-chambered, 1-ovuled, style 2–3-branched
Fruit: achene, generally 3-sided
Genera in family: ± 110 genera, 3600 species: worldwide, especially temp
Reference: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361–445]
Difficult: taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence and fruit.

SCIRPUS

S. Galen Smith, A.E. Schuyler, and William J. Crins

Annual or perennial herb, rhizomed or not; roots fibrous
Stem generally erect, 3-angled or cylindric, solid
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, 3-ranked; sheaths closed; ligule 0 or present; blades linear, sometimes vestigial and scale-like
Inflorescence panicle- or head-like; bracts 1–several, leaf- or ± stem-like; spikelets 1–many, generally many-flowered; flower bracts spiraled, generally ovate, scale-like
Flower bisexual; perianth bristles generally < and hidden by flower bracts, generally ± straight, generally slender, generally stiff, generally persistent on fruit, generally finely spined or fringed, sometimes 0 or vestigial; stamens generally 3; style 1, ribbon- or thread-like, stigmas 2–3, generally exserted
Fruit: achene, generally obovoid, lenticular or ± 2–3-angled, generally beaked, not tubercled
Species in genus: ± 200 species: generally wet sites, worldwide. Some species mistaken for Eleocharis
Recent taxonomic note: *CA plants treated as Amphiscirpus, Bolboschoenus, Isolepis, Schoenoplectus, Trichophorum [Browning et al. 1995 Brittonia 47:433–445; Smith 1995 Novon 5:97–102]

Native

S. koilolepis (Steud.) Gleason

Annual 1–20 cm
Stems generally erect, tufted, < 0.5 mm wide, subcylindric
Leaves ± basal; sheaths < 1 cm; upper 2–3 blades < 5 cm, C-shaped or flat, thick near tip
Inflorescence head-like; spikelets 1–3, 2–6 mm, 1–2 mm wide; bract 1, (5)10–25 mm, erect, stiff, ± stem-like; flower bract 2–3 mm, strongly keeled throughout, ± folded in fruit, glabrous, greenish to orange-brown, tip acute to short-awned
Flower: perianth bristles 0; stigmas 3
Fruit ± 1–1.5 mm, sharply 3-angled, shiny, dark orange-brown; sides concave to flat, papillate in vertical rows; beak minute
Ecology: Moist, open sites, woodlands
Elevation: < 750 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area
Distribution outside California: to e US
Recent taxonomic note: *Isolepis carinata Hook. & Arn.

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