|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual or perennial herb, often rhizomed, often of wet open places, generally monoecious; roots fibrous, hairy
Stem generally 3-sided
Leaves often 3-ranked; sheath generally closed; ligule generally 0; blade (0) various, parallel-veined
Inflorescence: spikelets variously clustered; flowers generally sessile in axil of flower bract
Flower small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or bristle-like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4-chambered; ovary superior, 1-chambered, 1-ovuled, style 23-branched
Fruit: achene, generally 3-sided
Genera in family: ± 110 genera, 3600 species: worldwide, especially temp
Reference: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361445]
Difficult: taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence and fruit.
Stem rounded or 3-sided, leafy, solid
Inflorescence generally subtended by 1+ awn-like bracts; spikelets 1many in generally terminal clusters; flower bracts spiraled, lower generally sterile, upper generally staminate, others bisexual
Flower: perianth bristles 5many, persistent; stamens 3; style 2-branched, base much expanded, persistent as tubercle on fruit
Species in genus: ± 200 species: worldwide, especially tropical
Etymology: (Greek: beaked seed)
Reference: [Gale 1944 Rhodora 46:89134;159197;207249;255278]
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Inflorescence: flower bracts tawny to whitish
Flower: perianth bristles 56, < 1/2 fruit, barbs ascending
Fruit 1.21.6 mm, body ovoid to ± spheric, dark, strongly ridged; tubercle not chalky- white
Ecology: Marshes, seeps
Elevation: < 500 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Outer North Coast Ranges (Pitkin Marsh, Sonoma Co.)
Distribution outside California: also e N.America
Remarkably separated from e North America range.