Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Raymond Cranfill, except as specified

Annual or perennial herb, often rhizomed, often of wet open places, generally monoecious; roots fibrous, hairy
Stem generally 3-sided
Leaves often 3-ranked; sheath generally closed; ligule generally 0; blade (0) various, parallel-veined
Inflorescence: spikelets variously clustered; flowers generally sessile in axil of flower bract
Flower small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or bristle-like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4-chambered; ovary superior, 1-chambered, 1-ovuled, style 2–3-branched
Fruit: achene, generally 3-sided
Genera in family: ± 110 genera, 3600 species: worldwide, especially temp
Reference: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361–445]
Difficult: taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence and fruit.

ELEOCHARIS

SPIKERUSH

Annual or perennial herb
Stem generally round, ridged and grooved, generally solid
Leaves basal, 1(–4); base sheathing; blade generally 0
Inflorescence: spikelet solitary, terminal, erect; spikelet bract 0; flower bracts generally spiraled
Flowers bisexual; perianth bristles 0–6, persistent, barbs generally recurved; stamens (1–)3; style 2–3-branched, base bulb-like, persistent
Fruit 2–3-sided or round; top tubercled
Species in genus: ± 250 species: worldwide
Etymology: (Greek: marsh grace)
St shape best seen in fresh material (or just below spikelet); drying exaggerates ridges and grooves.

Native

E. atropurpurea (Retz.) Kunth

Annual < 1.2 dm
Leaf: base deep brown; tip oblique, 1-toothed, green to reddish
Inflorescence: spikelet 3–8 mm, much wider than stem, oblong-ovate, generally 10–many-flowered; flower bracts ovate-obtuse, greenish with dark brown sides, lower deciduous
Flower: style 2-branched
Fruit: perianth bristles generally < fruit; body ± 0.5 mm, obovate, sharply 2-sided, black, shiny; tubercle < 1/5 fruit body, hat-like, base strongly narrowed
Ecology: Rice fields, wet fallow ground
Elevation: < 500 m.
Bioregional distribution: South Coast, Great Central Valley
Distribution outside California: to Washington, c&se US; tropical

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