|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual or perennial herb, often rhizomed, often of wet open places, generally monoecious; roots fibrous, hairy
Stem generally 3-sided
Leaves often 3-ranked; sheath generally closed; ligule generally 0; blade (0) various, parallel-veined
Inflorescence: spikelets variously clustered; flowers generally sessile in axil of flower bract
Flower small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or bristle-like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4-chambered; ovary superior, 1-chambered, 1-ovuled, style 23-branched
Fruit: achene, generally 3-sided
Genera in family: ± 110 genera, 3600 species: worldwide, especially temp
Reference: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361445]
Difficult: taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence and fruit.
Annual or perennial herb, glabrous
Stems generally > 1, erect, 2100 cm, 3-angled or round
Leaves basal; blades 0 or linear
Inflorescence: bracts 19, leaf-like, spreading or erect; rays < 10 cm; spikelets flat to ± cylindric; flower bracts 2-ranked, 1 per flower, 236 per spikelet
Flower bisexual; perianth 0; stigmas generally 3
Fruit (ob)ovoid, generally 3-angled, brown, generally not beaked
Etymology: (Greek: name for 1 sp.)
Reference: [Tucker 1983 Syst Bot Monogr 2:185]
Mature fruit generally needed for identification. C. unioloides R. Br. and C. virens Michx. probably only waifs in CA.
Perennial 1040 cm; stolons with tubers < 1 cm thick
Inflorescence: bracts 25, 525 cm; rays 510, 10150 mm; spikelets 312, 440 mm, linear to ± lanceolate, flat, reddish purple, in open, elliptic spikes 15 cm wide; flower bracts 636 per spikelet, 23.4 mm, ovate, 79-veined
Fruit 1.41.9 mm, elliptic, black, seldom maturing
Ecology: Disturbed soils, croplands
Elevation: 0250 m.
Bioregional distribution: Great Central Valley, South Coast, Sonoran Desert
Distribution outside California: tropical and warm temperate; native to Eurasia
Flowering time: JulNov
Often considered world's worst weed.