|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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Annual or perennial herb, often rhizomed, often of wet open places, generally monoecious; roots fibrous, hairy
Stem generally 3-sided
Leaves often 3-ranked; sheath generally closed; ligule generally 0; blade (0) various, parallel-veined
Inflorescence: spikelets variously clustered; flowers generally sessile in axil of flower bract
Flower small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or bristle-like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4-chambered; ovary superior, 1-chambered, 1-ovuled, style 23-branched
Fruit: achene, generally 3-sided
Genera in family: ± 110 genera, 3600 species: worldwide, especially temp
Reference: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361445]
Difficult: taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence and fruit.
Perennial, cespitose or from rhizomes, generally monoecious
Stem generally sharply 3-angled, generally solid
Leaves 3-ranked, generally glabrous except generally scabrous on midrib, margin; sheath closed, back (blade side of stem) green, ribbed, front generally thin, translucent, forming generally U-shaped mouth at top
Inflorescence: spikelets generally severalmany, arrayed in raceme, panicle, or head-like cluster, each 1many-flowered, generally subtended by a spikelet bract
Flowers unisexual, each subtended by 1 flower bract; perianth 0
Staminate flower: stamens generally 3
Pistillate flower enclosed by perigynium (sac-like bract); perigynium body 23-sided or round, wall generally delicate; perigynium beak tip open, often notched; style 1, generally deciduous, stigmas 24, exserted
Etymology: (Latin: cutter, from sharp leaf and stem edges)
Reference: [Standley 1985 Syst Bot Monogr 7:1106]
Fully mature perigynia needed for identification, so are described under "FR" (long-persistent perigynia are often atypical); perigynium "front" faces spikelet axis; "fruit" refers to achene body (excluding beak). "Shredding" lower leaf sheath fronts become a network or fringe of veins; some others shred longitudinally only. Difficult because of many species and minute key characters; longer key statements and descriptions are designed to enhance both ease and probability of correct identification. Group descriptions are assumed in specific descriptions
Horticultural information: Many species especially those with rhizomes are INVASIVE. This is one of the most effective genera for knitting moist or wet soil.
Leaf: blade 25 mm wide
Inflorescence dense, 1030 mm; axis generally ascending; spikelets ± indistinct; lowest spikelet bract ± erect, >> inflorescence, often > 2 mm wide, leaf-like, base ± around stem; pistillate flower bract < perigynium, reddish, often awned
Fruit: perigynium appressed to ascending, 3.55 mm, 1.21.8 mm wide, ovate, generally sessile, body green, flat margin including wing 0.20.3 mm wide, at least back veined, beak tip flat, winged, and serrate throughout or less often cylindric, unwinged, and entire for < 0.4 mm, generally green, very tip generally red-brown, 1.42.5 mm to fruit top; fruit 1.32 mm, 0.71.2 mm wide, near middle of perigynium body
Ecology: Seasonally wet places
Elevation: < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: n&c North Coast Ranges
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia
Much like (possibly best a var. of) C. athrostachya
Horticultural information: TRY.
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