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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Raymond Cranfill, except as specified

Annual or perennial herb, often rhizomed, often of wet open places, generally monoecious; roots fibrous, hairy
Stem generally 3-sided
Leaves often 3-ranked; sheath generally closed; ligule generally 0; blade (0) various, parallel-veined
Inflorescence: spikelets variously clustered; flowers generally sessile in axil of flower bract
Flower small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or bristle-like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4-chambered; ovary superior, 1-chambered, 1-ovuled, style 2–3-branched
Fruit: achene, generally 3-sided
Genera in family: ± 110 genera, 3600 species: worldwide, especially temp
Reference: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361–445]
Difficult: taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence and fruit.

CAREX

SEDGE

Joy Mastrogiuseppe

Perennial, cespitose or from rhizomes, generally monoecious
Stem generally sharply 3-angled, generally solid
Leaves 3-ranked, generally glabrous except generally scabrous on midrib, margin; sheath closed, back (blade side of stem) green, ribbed, front generally thin, translucent, forming generally U-shaped mouth at top
Inflorescence: spikelets generally several–many, arrayed in raceme, panicle, or head-like cluster, each 1–many-flowered, generally subtended by a spikelet bract
Flowers unisexual, each subtended by 1 flower bract; perianth 0
Staminate flower: stamens generally 3
Pistillate flower enclosed by perigynium (sac-like bract); perigynium body 2–3-sided or round, wall generally delicate; perigynium beak tip open, often notched; style 1, generally deciduous, stigmas 2–4, exserted
Fruit 2–4-sided
Etymology: (Latin: cutter, from sharp leaf and stem edges)
Reference: [Standley 1985 Syst Bot Monogr 7:1–106]
Fully mature perigynia needed for identification, so are described under "FR" (long-persistent perigynia are often atypical); perigynium "front" faces spikelet axis; "fruit" refers to achene body (excluding beak). "Shredding" lower leaf sheath fronts become a network or fringe of veins; some others shred longitudinally only. Difficult because of many species and minute key characters; longer key statements and descriptions are designed to enhance both ease and probability of correct identification. Group descriptions are assumed in specific descriptions
Horticultural information: Many species especially those with rhizomes are INVASIVE. This is one of the most effective genera for knitting moist or wet soil.

Native

C. pachystachya Cham.

(Group 9)
Leaf: blade 1.2–6.5 mm wide
Inflorescence 9–24 mm, ± dense; spikelets generally > 5, at most only lower distinct; lowest spikelet bract generally like pistillate flower bract; pistillate flower bract generally < 3.5 mm, generally < perigynium, generally reddish to brown ± throughout
Fruit: perigynium ascending-spreading, 2.8–5.1 mm, 1.1–2.3 mm wide, planoconvex, dark gold to brown, metallic, often copper, upper margin generally dark brown or coppery, less often narrowly green or gold, ± = in color to pistillate flower bract, flat margin including wing 0.2–0.5 mm wide, minutely serrate, back veined, front veins 0, few to below fruit middle, or 6 to beak, beak tip cylindric for > 0.4 mm, entire or serrate, dark brown to black, 1.5–2.9 mm to fruit top; fruit generally 1.2–2.2 mm, 1–1.5 mm wide, ovate, filling 2/3–4/5 perigynium body
Chromosomes: 2n=74,76,78,82
Ecology: Dryish meadows, open forests
Elevation: ± 0–3500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range
Synonyms: var. gracilis (Olney) Mack.; C. olympica Mack
Variable; intergrades with C. microptera
Horticultural information: TRY.

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bioregional map for CAREX%20pachystachya being generated
 
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