|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
previous taxon |
Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual or perennial herb, often rhizomed, often of wet open places, generally monoecious; roots fibrous, hairy
Stem generally 3-sided
Leaves often 3-ranked; sheath generally closed; ligule generally 0; blade (0) various, parallel-veined
Inflorescence: spikelets variously clustered; flowers generally sessile in axil of flower bract
Flower small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or bristle-like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4-chambered; ovary superior, 1-chambered, 1-ovuled, style 23-branched
Fruit: achene, generally 3-sided
Genera in family: ± 110 genera, 3600 species: worldwide, especially temp
Reference: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361445]
Difficult: taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence and fruit.
Perennial, cespitose or from rhizomes, generally monoecious
Stem generally sharply 3-angled, generally solid
Leaves 3-ranked, generally glabrous except generally scabrous on midrib, margin; sheath closed, back (blade side of stem) green, ribbed, front generally thin, translucent, forming generally U-shaped mouth at top
Inflorescence: spikelets generally severalmany, arrayed in raceme, panicle, or head-like cluster, each 1many-flowered, generally subtended by a spikelet bract
Flowers unisexual, each subtended by 1 flower bract; perianth 0
Staminate flower: stamens generally 3
Pistillate flower enclosed by perigynium (sac-like bract); perigynium body 23-sided or round, wall generally delicate; perigynium beak tip open, often notched; style 1, generally deciduous, stigmas 24, exserted
Etymology: (Latin: cutter, from sharp leaf and stem edges)
Reference: [Standley 1985 Syst Bot Monogr 7:1106]
Fully mature perigynia needed for identification, so are described under "FR" (long-persistent perigynia are often atypical); perigynium "front" faces spikelet axis; "fruit" refers to achene body (excluding beak). "Shredding" lower leaf sheath fronts become a network or fringe of veins; some others shred longitudinally only. Difficult because of many species and minute key characters; longer key statements and descriptions are designed to enhance both ease and probability of correct identification. Group descriptions are assumed in specific descriptions
Horticultural information: Many species especially those with rhizomes are INVASIVE. This is one of the most effective genera for knitting moist or wet soil.
(Groups 3,5) Cespitose or short-rhizomed
Stem 1590 cm
Inflorescence: lateral spikelets pistillate or tips staminate, lowest stalk exserted from bract sheath > 5 (generally > 10) mm; lowest spikelet bract sheath long, linear, mouth generally shallowly U-shaped or truncate, generally not purple, blade << inflorescence; pistillate flower bract midstripe pale
Fruit: perigynium generally without flat margin, 2-ribbed, veins generally raised, beak 0.61.5 mm, dark purple, often ciliate, tip to fruit top < 2.5 mm; fruit 1.32 mm, 0.71.1 mm wide
Ecology: Wet meadows, bogs
Elevation: < 2400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Central Coast, San Bernardino Mountains, Warner Mountains
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Montana, Wyoming
Horticultural information: TRY.
Leaf: blade 410 mm wide
Inflorescence: upper spikelets generally densely clustered, lateral generally 2-colored, sides ± smooth or bristly, not deeply jagged, tip truncate, rounded, or abruptly narrowed to staminate part; pistillate flower bract generally red-brown, midstripe > 0.2 mm wide, ± to tip, tip obtuse to acute
Fruit: perigynium ascending-spreading to spreading, generally 3.55.5 mm, 0.91.6 mm wide, with flat margin < 1/2 fruit width, mostly green to red-brown, less often purple, sessile, body ± not filled by fruit
Ecology: Habitat of sp.
Elevation: < 2400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Central Coast, San Bernardino Mountains
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Idaho
Perigynia sometimes hairy in CaRH, n SNH; sometimes 1.61.8 mm wide, flat around fruit (NCo).