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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Raymond Cranfill, except as specified

Annual or perennial herb, often rhizomed, often of wet open places, generally monoecious; roots fibrous, hairy
Stem generally 3-sided
Leaves often 3-ranked; sheath generally closed; ligule generally 0; blade (0) various, parallel-veined
Inflorescence: spikelets variously clustered; flowers generally sessile in axil of flower bract
Flower small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or bristle-like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4-chambered; ovary superior, 1-chambered, 1-ovuled, style 2–3-branched
Fruit: achene, generally 3-sided
Genera in family: ± 110 genera, 3600 species: worldwide, especially temp
Reference: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361–445]
Difficult: taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence and fruit.

CAREX

SEDGE

Joy Mastrogiuseppe

Perennial, cespitose or from rhizomes, generally monoecious
Stem generally sharply 3-angled, generally solid
Leaves 3-ranked, generally glabrous except generally scabrous on midrib, margin; sheath closed, back (blade side of stem) green, ribbed, front generally thin, translucent, forming generally U-shaped mouth at top
Inflorescence: spikelets generally several–many, arrayed in raceme, panicle, or head-like cluster, each 1–many-flowered, generally subtended by a spikelet bract
Flowers unisexual, each subtended by 1 flower bract; perianth 0
Staminate flower: stamens generally 3
Pistillate flower enclosed by perigynium (sac-like bract); perigynium body 2–3-sided or round, wall generally delicate; perigynium beak tip open, often notched; style 1, generally deciduous, stigmas 2–4, exserted
Fruit 2–4-sided
Etymology: (Latin: cutter, from sharp leaf and stem edges)
Reference: [Standley 1985 Syst Bot Monogr 7:1–106]
Fully mature perigynia needed for identification, so are described under "FR" (long-persistent perigynia are often atypical); perigynium "front" faces spikelet axis; "fruit" refers to achene body (excluding beak). "Shredding" lower leaf sheath fronts become a network or fringe of veins; some others shred longitudinally only. Difficult because of many species and minute key characters; longer key statements and descriptions are designed to enhance both ease and probability of correct identification. Group descriptions are assumed in specific descriptions
Horticultural information: Many species especially those with rhizomes are INVASIVE. This is one of the most effective genera for knitting moist or wet soil.

Native

C. leporinella Mack.

(Group 9)
Leaf: blade 0.5–2 mm wide, generally ± rolled
Inflorescence generally open, 15–35 mm; spikelets distinct, generally fusiform; lowest spikelet bract sometimes bristle-like; pistillate flower bract generally covering perigynium, red-brown, white-margined
Fruit: perigynium appressed, 3.2–4.2 mm, 0.8–1.2 mm wide, planoconvex, gold, veined both sides, shallowly scoop-shaped, wings incurved to front, flat margin including wing ± 0.1 mm wide, beak tips inconspicuous in inflorescence, cylindric and entire for > 0.4 mm, gold to brown, 1.5–2.2 mm to fruit top; fruit 1.4–1.9 mm, 0.7–1 mm wide
Ecology: Moist meadows
Elevation: 2100–4000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Warner Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada (Sweetwater Mtns), White and Inyo Mountains
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Utah
Horticultural information: WETorIRR, SUN: 1, 6, 15, 16, 17.

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