This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual or perennial herb, often rhizomed, often of wet open places, generally monoecious; roots fibrous, hairy
Stem generally 3-sided
Leaves often 3-ranked; sheath generally closed; ligule generally 0; blade (0) various, parallel-veined
Inflorescence: spikelets variously clustered; flowers generally sessile in axil of flower bract
Flower small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or bristle-like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4-chambered; ovary superior, 1-chambered, 1-ovuled, style 23-branched
Fruit: achene, generally 3-sided
Genera in family: ± 110 genera, 3600 species: worldwide, especially temp
Reference: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361445]
Difficult: taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence and fruit.
Perennial, cespitose or from rhizomes, generally monoecious
Stem generally sharply 3-angled, generally solid
Leaves 3-ranked, generally glabrous except generally scabrous on midrib, margin; sheath closed, back (blade side of stem) green, ribbed, front generally thin, translucent, forming generally U-shaped mouth at top
Inflorescence: spikelets generally severalmany, arrayed in raceme, panicle, or head-like cluster, each 1many-flowered, generally subtended by a spikelet bract
Flowers unisexual, each subtended by 1 flower bract; perianth 0
Staminate flower: stamens generally 3
Pistillate flower enclosed by perigynium (sac-like bract); perigynium body 23-sided or round, wall generally delicate; perigynium beak tip open, often notched; style 1, generally deciduous, stigmas 24, exserted
Etymology: (Latin: cutter, from sharp leaf and stem edges)
Reference: [Standley 1985 Syst Bot Monogr 7:1106]
Fully mature perigynia needed for identification, so are described under "FR" (long-persistent perigynia are often atypical); perigynium "front" faces spikelet axis; "fruit" refers to achene body (excluding beak). "Shredding" lower leaf sheath fronts become a network or fringe of veins; some others shred longitudinally only. Difficult because of many species and minute key characters; longer key statements and descriptions are designed to enhance both ease and probability of correct identification. Group descriptions are assumed in specific descriptions
Horticultural information: Many species especially those with rhizomes are INVASIVE. This is one of the most effective genera for knitting moist or wet soil.
(Group 5) Cespitose or short-rhizomed
Stem 2080 cm
Leaf: blade 1.54 mm wide
Inflorescence generally < 15 cm; lowest internode generally < 10 cm; lateral spikelets pistillate at least below, longest < 15 mm, stalks generally exserted < 1 cm, erect or spreading; lowest spikelet bract blade << inflorescence, sheath long, linear, mouth not purple-banded; pistillate flower bract generally at least partly red-brown, with wide white margin, sometimes all white
Fruit: perigynium spreading, 2.74 mm, 11.7 mm wide, generally green, with a few purple blotches or not, beak 0.71.2 mm, generally ciliate, tip generally brown or purple, < 1.4 mm to fruit top; fruit 1.51.9 mm, 0.91.2 mm wide
Ecology: Marshes, bogs
Elevation: 7003000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains.Plants from Lassen, Plumas, and Butte cos. have the white pistillate flower bracts and perigynium beak of C. albida ; some plants in SnBr approach C. albida in leaf width and spikelet size, but have perigynia 3.84.6 mm, 11.5 mm wide, and fruit 1.71.9 mm, 0.81.2 mm wide; plants of SN with few, appressed perigynia may be distinct
Horticultural information: TRY.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|