This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual or perennial herb, often rhizomed, often of wet open places, generally monoecious; roots fibrous, hairy
Stem generally 3-sided
Leaves often 3-ranked; sheath generally closed; ligule generally 0; blade (0) various, parallel-veined
Inflorescence: spikelets variously clustered; flowers generally sessile in axil of flower bract
Flower small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or bristle-like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4-chambered; ovary superior, 1-chambered, 1-ovuled, style 23-branched
Fruit: achene, generally 3-sided
Genera in family: ± 110 genera, 3600 species: worldwide, especially temp
Reference: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361445]
Difficult: taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence and fruit.
Perennial, cespitose or from rhizomes, generally monoecious
Stem generally sharply 3-angled, generally solid
Leaves 3-ranked, generally glabrous except generally scabrous on midrib, margin; sheath closed, back (blade side of stem) green, ribbed, front generally thin, translucent, forming generally U-shaped mouth at top
Inflorescence: spikelets generally severalmany, arrayed in raceme, panicle, or head-like cluster, each 1many-flowered, generally subtended by a spikelet bract
Flowers unisexual, each subtended by 1 flower bract; perianth 0
Staminate flower: stamens generally 3
Pistillate flower enclosed by perigynium (sac-like bract); perigynium body 23-sided or round, wall generally delicate; perigynium beak tip open, often notched; style 1, generally deciduous, stigmas 24, exserted
Etymology: (Latin: cutter, from sharp leaf and stem edges)
Reference: [Standley 1985 Syst Bot Monogr 7:1106]
Fully mature perigynia needed for identification, so are described under "FR" (long-persistent perigynia are often atypical); perigynium "front" faces spikelet axis; "fruit" refers to achene body (excluding beak). "Shredding" lower leaf sheath fronts become a network or fringe of veins; some others shred longitudinally only. Difficult because of many species and minute key characters; longer key statements and descriptions are designed to enhance both ease and probability of correct identification. Group descriptions are assumed in specific descriptions
Horticultural information: Many species especially those with rhizomes are INVASIVE. This is one of the most effective genera for knitting moist or wet soil.
(Group 7) Generally dioecious; rhizome 12 mm thick, brown
Leaf: blade 12.5 mm wide, folded or inrolled at margin, thick; sheath mouth with thick rim
Staminate inflorescence dense, < 3 cm, 725 mm wide; lowest spikelet bract like pistillate flower bract
Pistillate inflorescence dense, 1.53.5 cm, 1.32.7 cm wide; spikelets generally < 10; pistillate flower bract > perigynium, gold, minutely pointed
Staminate flower: filament exserted, anther conspicuous, ± 3.5 mm, awn 0.21 mm, glabrous
Pistillate flower: style 1.83.5 mm, exserted; stigmas 46 mm, conspicuous, persistent
Fruit: perigynium appressed, 3.54.6 mm, 1.31.8 mm wide, many-veined, often obscurely, both sides, tapered to tip, gold to medium brown, beak 0.91.8 mm, ± = body, tip with narrow white margin; fruit 1.41.9 mm, 11.5 mm wide
Ecology: Dryish sandy, gravelly, or alkaline areas
Elevation: 3003800 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High Sierra Nevada, San Joaquin Valley, South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains (Cottonwood Mtns)
Distribution outside California: to w&c Canada, c US, New Mexico
Horticultural information: TRY; STBL.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|