Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Raymond Cranfill, except as specified

Annual or perennial herb, often rhizomed, often of wet open places, generally monoecious; roots fibrous, hairy
Stem generally 3-sided
Leaves often 3-ranked; sheath generally closed; ligule generally 0; blade (0) various, parallel-veined
Inflorescence: spikelets variously clustered; flowers generally sessile in axil of flower bract
Flower small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or bristle-like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4-chambered; ovary superior, 1-chambered, 1-ovuled, style 2–3-branched
Fruit: achene, generally 3-sided
Genera in family: ± 110 genera, 3600 species: worldwide, especially temp
Reference: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361–445]
Difficult: taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence and fruit.

CAREX

SEDGE

Joy Mastrogiuseppe

Perennial, cespitose or from rhizomes, generally monoecious
Stem generally sharply 3-angled, generally solid
Leaves 3-ranked, generally glabrous except generally scabrous on midrib, margin; sheath closed, back (blade side of stem) green, ribbed, front generally thin, translucent, forming generally U-shaped mouth at top
Inflorescence: spikelets generally several–many, arrayed in raceme, panicle, or head-like cluster, each 1–many-flowered, generally subtended by a spikelet bract
Flowers unisexual, each subtended by 1 flower bract; perianth 0
Staminate flower: stamens generally 3
Pistillate flower enclosed by perigynium (sac-like bract); perigynium body 2–3-sided or round, wall generally delicate; perigynium beak tip open, often notched; style 1, generally deciduous, stigmas 2–4, exserted
Fruit 2–4-sided
Etymology: (Latin: cutter, from sharp leaf and stem edges)
Reference: [Standley 1985 Syst Bot Monogr 7:1–106]
Fully mature perigynia needed for identification, so are described under "FR" (long-persistent perigynia are often atypical); perigynium "front" faces spikelet axis; "fruit" refers to achene body (excluding beak). "Shredding" lower leaf sheath fronts become a network or fringe of veins; some others shred longitudinally only. Difficult because of many species and minute key characters; longer key statements and descriptions are designed to enhance both ease and probability of correct identification. Group descriptions are assumed in specific descriptions
Horticultural information: Many species especially those with rhizomes are INVASIVE. This is one of the most effective genera for knitting moist or wet soil.

Native

C. brainerdii Mack.

(Group 2) In clumps connected by rhizomes
Stem generally 10–30 cm
Leaf: blade generally > bisexual inflorescence, 1.5–3 mm wide, gray-green; basal sheaths dark purple-red
Inflorescence: staminate spikelet 10–17 mm, 1.5–3.5 mm wide; pistillate spikelets 4–6, solitary ones on short or long, stout, erect stalks; lowest spikelet bract of bisexual inflorescence with > or = 2 mm sheath tearing in age; pistillate flower bract reddish, at least some awned
Fruit: perigynia 1–6 per spikelet, 4–5.2 mm, 1.5–2.2 mm wide, faces veined or several-ribbed at least below, beak tip to fruit top 1–2 mm; fruit 2.1–2.5 mm, 1.5–2.1 mm wide, generally tan or brown
Ecology: Dry rocky areas, open forests
Elevation: 900–2800 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Outer South Coast Ranges (San Luis Obispo Co.)
Distribution outside California: s Oregon
Horticultural information: TRY; STBL.

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bioregional map for CAREX%20brainerdii being generated
 
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