Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

VIOLACEAE

VIOLET FAMILY

R. John Little

Annual to shrub or vine (generally per in CA)
Leaves basal, cauline, or both, generally alternate, entire to compound; stipules generally small
Inflorescence: head, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary; peduncle bractlets 2
Flower generally bisexual, generally bilateral; sepals 5, free to slightly fused, generally persistent; petals 5, free, lowest generally spurred or pouched at base; stamens generally 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, anthers surrounding ovary, adherent or fused, often with nectaries at base, often with membranous appendage at tip; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas 3, parietal, ovules generally many, style 1
Fruit: generally capsule, 3-valved, generally explosively dehiscent
Seeds generally appendaged
Genera in family: 15 genera, 600 species: generally temp, worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental; some Eur species medicinally useful as emetics, diuretics, purgatives
Reference: [Brizicky 1961 J Arnold Arbor 42:321–333]

VIOLA

VIOLET

Annual or perennial herb < 35 cm, glabrous to hairy
Leaf entire to compound
Inflorescence: flower generally solitary, axillary
Flower bilateral; sepals subequal, appendaged at base; petals unequal, lowest spurred or pouched at base, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, often hairy near base, upper 2 equal, erect; lower 2 stamens with nectaries projecting into spur
Fruit: capsule, ovoid to oblong
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name)
Reference: [Clausen 1964 Madroño 17:173–197]
Cleistogamous flowers generally present. Seeds often dispersed by ants that feed on seed-appendages.

Native

V. sempervirens Greene

EVERGREEN VIOLET

Plant 2–15 cm; stolons with scattered leaves, at nodes rooting, rosette-forming
Stem erect from scaly rhizome
Leaves basal and cauline, simple, leathery, evergreen; hairs 0 to sparse, especially on veins; petiole 10–160 mm; blade 10–40 mm, generally wider than long, generally purple-spotted on 1 or both surfaces, crenate, base cordate, tip obtuse
Inflorescence: peduncle 50–100 mm
Flower: petals lemon-yellow, lowest (including spur) 8–17 mm, very wide, lower 3 veined purple, lateral 2 bearded
Fruit < 7 mm, purple-mottled
Chromosomes: n=12,24
Ecology: Coastal forests
Elevation: 30–1400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Central Western California
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia
Horticultural information: SHD, IRR, DRN: 4, 5, 6, 14, 15, 16, 17, 24; DFCLT; GRCVR.

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