Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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VIOLACEAE

VIOLET FAMILY

R. John Little

Annual to shrub or vine (generally per in CA)
Leaves basal, cauline, or both, generally alternate, entire to compound; stipules generally small
Inflorescence: head, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary; peduncle bractlets 2
Flower generally bisexual, generally bilateral; sepals 5, free to slightly fused, generally persistent; petals 5, free, lowest generally spurred or pouched at base; stamens generally 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, anthers surrounding ovary, adherent or fused, often with nectaries at base, often with membranous appendage at tip; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas 3, parietal, ovules generally many, style 1
Fruit: generally capsule, 3-valved, generally explosively dehiscent
Seeds generally appendaged
Genera in family: 15 genera, 600 species: generally temp, worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental; some Eur species medicinally useful as emetics, diuretics, purgatives
Reference: [Brizicky 1961 J Arnold Arbor 42:321–333]

VIOLA

VIOLET

Annual or perennial herb < 35 cm, glabrous to hairy
Leaf entire to compound
Inflorescence: flower generally solitary, axillary
Flower bilateral; sepals subequal, appendaged at base; petals unequal, lowest spurred or pouched at base, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, often hairy near base, upper 2 equal, erect; lower 2 stamens with nectaries projecting into spur
Fruit: capsule, ovoid to oblong
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name)
Reference: [Clausen 1964 Madroño 17:173–197]
Cleistogamous flowers generally present. Seeds often dispersed by ants that feed on seed-appendages.

Native

V. purpurea Kellogg

Plant 1–35 cm
Stem appearing ± early, sometimes elongating, ascending to erect from woody taproot, generally hairy
Leaves simple, entire to toothed, often purplish (especially below), ± hairy; basal 1–5, petiole 20–145 mm, blade 10–50 mm, ovate to round, tapered to cordate at base, often fleshy; cauline blade < basal, lanceolate to ovate, base tapered to cordate
Inflorescence: peduncle 15–170 mm
Flower: petals deep lemon-yellow, lowest (including spur) 6–17 mm, lower 3 veined purple-brown, lateral 2 bearded, upper 2 purplish outside
Fruit 5–12 mm, puberulent
Chromosomes: n=6,12.
Ecology: Chaparral, dry forest, timberline communities, sagebrush or desert scrub
Elevation: 400–3100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Southwestern California, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains (Panamint Mtns)
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, n Baja California
Variable; subspp. intergrade; needs study
Horticultural information: TRY; DFCLT.

Native

subsp. mohavensis (M.S. Baker & J.C. Clausen) J.C. Clausen

Plant 8–22 cm
Leaves: basal generally erect, blade regularly dentate, base tapered to truncate; cauline blade deeply toothed, base tapered, tip acute
Inflorescence: peduncle < 140 mm
Chromosomes: n=6
Ecology: Desert or sagebrush scrub, dry yellow-pine forest
Elevation: 1000–2400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: sw Nevada
Flowering time: Apr–Jun
Synonyms: V. aurea Kellogg subsp. m. M.S. Baker & J.C. Clausen
Variable.

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bioregional map for VIOLA%20purpurea%20subsp.%20mohavensis being generated
 
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Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Viola purpurea subsp. mohavensis
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