Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

VIOLACEAE

VIOLET FAMILY

R. John Little

Annual to shrub or vine (generally per in CA)
Leaves basal, cauline, or both, generally alternate, entire to compound; stipules generally small
Inflorescence: head, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary; peduncle bractlets 2
Flower generally bisexual, generally bilateral; sepals 5, free to slightly fused, generally persistent; petals 5, free, lowest generally spurred or pouched at base; stamens generally 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, anthers surrounding ovary, adherent or fused, often with nectaries at base, often with membranous appendage at tip; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas 3, parietal, ovules generally many, style 1
Fruit: generally capsule, 3-valved, generally explosively dehiscent
Seeds generally appendaged
Genera in family: 15 genera, 600 species: generally temp, worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental; some Eur species medicinally useful as emetics, diuretics, purgatives
Reference: [Brizicky 1961 J Arnold Arbor 42:321–333]

VIOLA

VIOLET

Annual or perennial herb < 35 cm, glabrous to hairy
Leaf entire to compound
Inflorescence: flower generally solitary, axillary
Flower bilateral; sepals subequal, appendaged at base; petals unequal, lowest spurred or pouched at base, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, often hairy near base, upper 2 equal, erect; lower 2 stamens with nectaries projecting into spur
Fruit: capsule, ovoid to oblong
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name)
Reference: [Clausen 1964 Madroño 17:173–197]
Cleistogamous flowers generally present. Seeds often dispersed by ants that feed on seed-appendages.

Native

V. pinetorum Greene

Plant 4–22 cm, rosette-forming or not, glabrous to hairy
Stem prostrate to erect from woody taproot
Leaves simple, linear to ovate, generally ± toothed or wavy-margined; blade base tapered, tip acute; basal 4–20 cm, thin or not; cauline 30–150 mm, generally 4 X width
Inflorescence: peduncle 20–90 mm
Flower: lowest petal (including spur) 5–11 mm, lemon-yellow, lower 3 petals veined purple-brown, lateral 2 bearded, upper 2 ± purple-brown outside
Fruit 4–7 mm, puberulent
Chromosomes: n=6
Ecology: Dry places under shrubs or conifers to barren alpine rock
Elevation: 1400–3400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Western Transverse Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains.Variable; needs study
Horticultural information: TRY; DFCLT.

Native

subsp. pinetorum

Plant 6–22 cm, glabrous to hairy
Leaves 4–25 mm wide; basal 50–200 mm; cauline 30–150 mm
Inflorescence: peduncle 30–90 mm
Ecology: Generally dry soil, often under pines
Elevation: 1400–3100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Western Transverse Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains
Synonyms: V. purpurea subsp. mesophyta M.S. Baker & J.C. Clausen and subsp. xerophyta M.S. Baker & J. Clausen in part

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