Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

VIOLACEAE

VIOLET FAMILY

R. John Little

Annual to shrub or vine (generally per in CA)
Leaves basal, cauline, or both, generally alternate, entire to compound; stipules generally small
Inflorescence: head, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary; peduncle bractlets 2
Flower generally bisexual, generally bilateral; sepals 5, free to slightly fused, generally persistent; petals 5, free, lowest generally spurred or pouched at base; stamens generally 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, anthers surrounding ovary, adherent or fused, often with nectaries at base, often with membranous appendage at tip; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas 3, parietal, ovules generally many, style 1
Fruit: generally capsule, 3-valved, generally explosively dehiscent
Seeds generally appendaged
Genera in family: 15 genera, 600 species: generally temp, worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental; some Eur species medicinally useful as emetics, diuretics, purgatives
Reference: [Brizicky 1961 J Arnold Arbor 42:321–333]

VIOLA

VIOLET

Annual or perennial herb < 35 cm, glabrous to hairy
Leaf entire to compound
Inflorescence: flower generally solitary, axillary
Flower bilateral; sepals subequal, appendaged at base; petals unequal, lowest spurred or pouched at base, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, often hairy near base, upper 2 equal, erect; lower 2 stamens with nectaries projecting into spur
Fruit: capsule, ovoid to oblong
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name)
Reference: [Clausen 1964 Madroño 17:173–197]
Cleistogamous flowers generally present. Seeds often dispersed by ants that feed on seed-appendages.

Native

V. palustris L.

MARSH VIOLET

Plant 5–22 cm from thin, creeping rhizome, forming late-season stolons, glabrous
Stem 0
Leaves basal, simple; stipules reddish; petiole 20–170 mm; blade 20–65 mm, ovate to round, crenate, base cordate, tip obtuse
Inflorescence: peduncle < 210 mm
Flower: sepal appendages 1–2 mm, ear-like; petals acute, almost white to pale blue or violet, lowest (including spur) 8–17 mm, lower 3 violet-veined at base, lateral 2 ± bearded
Fruit 6–7 mm, glabrous
Chromosomes: n=24
Ecology: Uncommon. Swampy, shrubby places
Elevation: < 150 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, e N.America, Colorado; also in Europe
Horticultural information: TRY.
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
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